Grounding and salvage – general average 3.9.1 Grounding A grounding may primarily involve the Hull and Machinery insurers and not necessarily P&I.

Grounding and salvage – general average

Mariner

Grounding and salvage – general average

3.9.1 Grounding

A grounding may primarily involve the Hull and Machinery insurers and not necessarily P&I. It may nevertheless, result in a general average and/or salvage, which may involve the P&I insurer as well. The Company, the Hull and Machinery insurer and/or the P&I insurer or their respective local correspondents should therefore be contacted. Appropriate action must be taken and evidence collected.

3.9.1.1 Action to be taken

  • Immediate action
  • Reporting
    • date and vessel’s time of the grounding
    • position/location of the grounding
    • extent of damage sustained by the vessel
    • description of the part of the vessel aground
    • depth of water around the vessel
    • cargo distribution
    • prevailing weather conditions at the time of the grounding (keep any weather records)
    • prevailing tide and current
    • consistency of the seabed
    • any pollution arising as a result of the grounding, please see section 3.12 Pollution
    • confirmation of notification to the nearest local authority or the National Operational Contact Point of the grounding.
  • Salvor in attendance

The Company, the Hull and Machinery and/or P&I insurers and the local correspondents should be informed immediately, providing the following information

Whenever a salvor is in attendance, the Master should keep a detailed, chronological record of the following

  • weather, wind, sea and tidal conditions from commencement of the refloating operation
  • names and position of tugs attending
  • times the tugs commenced the refloating operation
  • all activities undertaken and progress achieved
  • materials used by the salvor
  • personnel involved
  • any damage and/or risk of damage to the salvor’s equipment and property
  • any discussions with the salvors.
  • crew involvement (name, time and activity involved)• fuel used (heavy fuel, diesel and lubrication oil) • vessel’s equipment used and damaged.
  • Date and exact time of the grounding as recorded on the bridge and in the engine room, vessel’s local time and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
  • position/location of the grounding
  • description of the part of the vessel aground
  • description of the area of the seabed where the grounding took place
  • courses (chart course, steered course, gyro and magnetic compass) at the time of the grounding
  • speed, propeller revolutions or propeller pitch of the vessel at the time of the grounding
  • rudder position at the time of the grounding
  • any alterations in course and/or speed immediately before the grounding and the exact time of such alteration
  • any communications including orders given to the engine room
  • any communications exchanged between the vessel and shore radio stations or traffic control centres
  • if under pilotage, any communications between the pilot and the vessel’s command including helmsman prior to the grounding
  • if under pilotage, any communications between the pilot and tugs or shore radio stations or traffic control centres
  • any compass and/or radar bearings and distances to shore taken and recorded prior to the grounding
  • any helm or engine manoeuvres before and after the grounding and the times of such manoeuvres
  • prevailing weather conditions at the time of the grounding
  • prevailing tide and current at the time of the grounding
  • draught of the vessel at the time of the grounding
  • depth of water around the vessel
  • records of soundings of all vessel’s tanks taken prior to and after the grounding
  • cargo distribution at the time of the grounding and any subsequent changes.

During the refloating operation the Master should keep a detailed record of the vessel’s expenses and excess costs incurred in respect of

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3.9.1.2 Evidence to be collected

A. General information

(keep any weather records)


  • Navigation and communication equipment in use at the time of the grounding
    • Echo sounder and echo sounder trace – description and range used
    • radars – short description of radar settings and changes to settings with exact times prior to the incident
    • GPS systems – position recorded after button pressed (if done)
    • VHF – short description of its location on the bridge and channels operated at the time of the incident, any switches to other channels with exact times prior to the incident
    • electronic chart display – short description of the chart used and when last updated
    • any other navigation or communication equipment used to be described as above.
  • Persons involved
    • all persons attending the bridge at the time of the grounding
    • any lookouts not present on the bridge
    • any other eye witnesses to the grounding
    • engine room personnel on duty at the time of the grounding
    • any pilot on board at the time of the grounding, times of embarkation/disembarkation
    • other vessels/traffic in the vicinity.
  • Documents to be retained

Name, rank, duties, whereabouts and contact details of

Copies of the above together with copies of other trading documents will be taken by the lawyer or correspondent instructed on behalf of the Company, the Hull and Machinery and/or the P&I insurers.

3.9.2 General average

A general average may primarily concern the Hull and Machinery and cargo insurers. However, in the end it may also involve the P&I cover. The Company, the Hull and Machinery insurer and the P&I insurer should therefore be contacted.

3.9.2.1 General

If general average has been declared, the Master should keep a detailed chronological record of all actions taken, sacrifices and/or expenditures made and any support received from third parties, such as salvors, including details of any discussions or agreements reached.

3.9.2.2 Action to be taken

If the Master has been advised that general average has been declared, he/she should immediately

  • contact the Company, the Hull and Machinery and/or P&I insurers
  • contact the local correspondents for assistance.
  • date and vessel’s time, local and UTC (Co-ordinated Universal Time)
  • vessel’s position/location
  • condition of the vessel – aground, damaged
  • precise amount of bunkers, other fuels and combustibles on board (sounding of tanks is required)
  • names, ranks and actions of crew members involved in the general average
  • detailed, chronological description of actions and measures taken
  • details of any pollution caused by the incident, please see section
  • details of any personal injury, please see section 3.11 Personal injury, crew illness and death
  • records of any discussions or conversations.

3.9.2.3 Evidence to be collected

In most cases, a general average surveyor will be appointed by the average adjuster to keep an accurate record of all the actions taken together with any expenditure. Until a general average surveyor arrives on the scene the following information should be collected

3.12 Pollution

3.9.3 Salvage

3.9.3.1 General

As the salvage costs are mainly the concern of the Hull and Machinery and cargo insurers, the Master should immediately contact the Company and the Hull and Machinery insurer enabling them to decide what actions to take.

The cover provided by the P&I insurers may, nevertheless, be involved, especially if there is damage to the marine environment or third party property as a result of pollution. Therefore, actions need to be taken and evidence collected.

Under the ISM Code, the Master has the overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions with regard to safety and pollution prevention – section 5.2 of the ISM Code. The Master may therefore have to make the decision himself to engage a tug – please see section 2.16.7.2 Grounding and salvage.

3.9.3.2 Reporting

When salvage becomes necessary the Master must immediately inform

  • the Company
  • the Hull and Machinery insurer
  • the P&I insurer• the local correspondent.
  • short description of the incident
  • date and vessel’s time of the incident
  • position/location of the incident
  • extent of damage sustained by the vessel
  • name, IMO number and extent of damage sustained by the other vessel if involved or extent of damage to FFO if involved
  • prevailing weather, current and tidal conditions at the time of the incident (keep any weather records)
  • any fatality or personal injury on board the vessel, please see section 3.11 Personal injury
  • any pollution caused by the incident, please see section 3.12 Pollution.

He/she should provide the following information

3.9.3.3 Action to be taken

Reference should be made to the Emergency Contingency Plan.

3.9.3.4 Evidence to be collected

  • General information
    • Date and exact time recorded on the bridge and in the engine room of the incident resulting in the salvage, vessel’s local time and UTC (Co-ordinated Universal Time)
    • position/location of the incident
    • courses (chart course, steered course, gyro and magnetic compass) at the time of or prior to the incident
    • speed, propeller revolutions or propeller pitch of the vessel at the time of or prior to the incident
    • rudder position at the time of or prior to the incident
    • any alteration of course and/or speed immediately before the incident, including the exact time of the alteration
    • any communications including orders given to the engine room (if applicable)
    • any communications exchanged between the vessel and shore radio stations, traffic control centres or other vessels
    • if under pilotage, any communications between the pilot and the vessel’s command including the helmsman prior to the incident
    • if under pilotage, any communications between the pilot and tugs, shore radio stations, traffic control centres or other vessels prior to the incident
    • any compass and/or radar bearings and distances to shore taken and recorded prior to the incident
    • any helm or engine manoeuvres before and after the incident and the times of such manoeuvres
    • prevailing weather conditions at the time of the incident (keep any weather records)
    • prevailing tide and current at the time of the incident
    • draught of the vessel at the time of the incident
    • records of soundings taken prior to and after the incident
    • soundings of all tanks (fuel and water)
    • assessment of damage sustained by the vessel.
  • Navigation and communication equipment in use at the time of the incident
  • Radars – short description of radar settings and changes to settings with exact times, prior to the incident• GPS systems – position recorded after button pressed (if done) • VHF – short description of its location on the bridge and channels operated at the time of the incident, times of switching to other channels prior to the incident • electronic chart display – short description of the chart used and when last updated • echo sounder and echo sounder trace – description and range used • any other navigation or communication equipment used to be described as above.
  • C. Persons involved
  • Name, rank, duties, whereabouts and contact details of • all persons attending the bridge prior to or at the time of the incident • any lookouts not present on the bridge • any other eye witnesses to the incident • engine room personnel on duty prior to or at the time of the incident • any pilots attending the vessel prior to or at the time of the incident, times of embarkation/disembarkation • any other persons involved • other traffic/vessels in the vicinity. D. Documents to be retained • Chart used (paper or electronic) – do not tamper with or erase any marks/data • deck logbook • bridge bell book or scrap log • engine logbook • engine bell book or scrap log • manoeuvre/course recorder printouts • echo sounder trace • deviation log • weather reports and logs.

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