LSA Q: Life saving appliances for all ship. A: 1) 3 two-way VHF radio telephone. Radar Transponder-1.12 rocket parachute flare.



Q: Life saving appliances for all ship.

A: 1) 3 two-way VHF radio telephone.

  • Radar Transponder-1.
  • 12 rocket parachute flare.
  • On board communication (Fixed or portable) between emergency control station, muster and embarkation station, and alarm system and public address system on passenger ship.
  • Muster List-Operating instructions.
  • Life buoys:

Length of the ship in meters Minimum no. of life buoys

Under 100 8

100 and under 150 10

150 and under 200 12

200 and over 14

  • at least 2 with buoyant life line
  • at least ½ with self-igniting lights
  • at least 2 with self-activating smoke signals
  • For adult-100% + 5% extra
  • For Children-10% of the number of passenger on board
  • Life Jacket for persons on watch and remotely located survival craft.
  • Life Jacket shall be fitted with light.
  • At least three immersion suit, and thermal protective aids for person onboard not provided with immersion suit for each life boat. But it is not required if
  • Totally enclose life boat both side 100%.
  • Life raft aggregated 100% when easily transferable from one side to another or 100% each side.
  • Horizontal distance if more than 100m from nearest survival craft then another life raft to be place fwd or aft.
  • Fire Main:
  • Appliances:
  • Hoses:
  • Hydrant:
  • Fire Pumps:
  • Portable fire extinguishers:
  • Fixed Smothering System:
  • Boiler room:
  • Engine room-diesel
  • Engine room-steam
  • Unmanned E.R. (UMS):
  • Fireman’s Outfits:
  • Ship/Shore Connection.
  • Inert Gas system:
  • Fixed deck foam System:
  • Pump room:
  • Fireman’s Outfits:
  • fire detection
  • Fire pumps
  • Fire hoses
  • Fire Main
  • Public address System
  • Portable Extinguishers
  • Fireman’s Outfits:
  • Explosives:
  • Hoses:
  • Nozzles:
  • Portable fire extinguishers:
  • Fixed CO2 Flooding:
  • Means of stopping machinery:
  • Fireman’s outfit
  • B.A. Sets
  • Portable battery operated safety lamp (3 hrs duration).
  • Fireman’s axe
  • Protective clothing
  • Boots and gloves of non conducting material (e.g. rubber).
  • Rigid helmet
  • Helicopter facilities
  • Dry powder extinguisher 45 kg
  • Foam application system
  • CO2 extinguisher 16 kg
  • Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces:
  • General Arrangement Plans:
  • Reduce speed if squat is suspected.
  • Establish Communication between Vessels.
  • Agreed overtaking procedure. Lead vessel to slow down to reduce interactive forces. Overtaking vessel to speed up so as to reduce the period the vessels are in close proximity to a minimum.
  • Select wide and straight section of the channel.
  • Select deeper stretch of channel in order to reduce squat and interactive forces.
  • Ensure no other traffic in the vicinity.
  • Ensure experienced and competent helmsman on wheel who is aware of sudden swings possible due to interaction. Both steering motors on.
  • Warn Engine room.
  • Ensure maximum distance between vessels whilst overtaking manoeuvre is taking place.
  • Life jacket
  • Immersion Suit and thermal protective aids:
  • Survival craft.

½ has totally enclose life boats on each side.

½ constantly engage on a voyage in warm climates.

  • Rescue boat: one.
  • Training manual.
  • Line throwing appliances: 4 nos.


Q: Fire protection regulation

A: For Class 7 vessels

Vessel to be fitted with a fire main, water service pipes and hydrants with no other connection other then for washing down.

Sufficient appliances to ensure at least two jets of water to any point from separate hydrants.

One hoses for every 30m of ship’s length (minimum 5). Total length of at least 60% ship’s length, Plus one spare hose. (Engine Room extra)

Sufficient to produce two jets of water at any point. Each machinery / boiler space to have at least 2 hydrant, one each side, plus one in the shaft tunnel.

Two fire pumps + one other pumps (general service, ballast or bilge’s pump) each capable of producing two jets of water from separate hydrants. If all pumps are in same compartment (usually E. R.) an independently driven emergency fire pumps is required out side that compartment.

Sufficient extinguisher so that at least one is readily available in any part of the accommodation or service space. Not less then 5 ( 3 if under 1000t) , spare charges for 50% of each type unless not readily recharged in which case an additional extinguisher of the same type must be provided.

Ships 2000t or over to be provided with fixed gas smothering system for every cargo space. An exemption may be granted if ship only carries bulk cargoes of low fire hazard and the v/l is fitted with steel hatches and all openings to that compartment can be sealed. Ro/Ro cargo space not capable of being sealed to be protected by a fixed water spraying system instead.

A fixed smothering system-pressure water, gas or foam. In each boiler space a large foam extinguisher (min.135 litres) or CO2 equivalent (min. 45 kg). Plus one portable extinguishers plus 0.3m³ sand and a scoop.

A fixed smothering system-pressure water, gas or foam, and a 45 litre foam extinguisher or a 16 kg CO2 extinguisher, plus a portable foam applicator unit. Sufficient portable extinguishers (min 2) so that at least one is not more than 10m walking distance from any point.

Sufficient 45 litre foam or 16 kg CO2 extinguisher to reach any part or a fixed system - water spraying or gas smothering. Sufficient portable extinguishers (min 2) so that at least one is not more then 10m walking distance from any point. Where such space are periodically unmanned, a fixed system - water spraying or gas smothering.

Automatic fire detection and alarm system

Over 4000t: 4. 2500t-4000t:3 under 2500t:2

One outfit to be of the air hose type, remainder self contained type.

For class 7 (T)

In addition to the above:

Required if tanker over 20,000t and carrying volatile oil; also required if engaged in crude Oil washing.

To provide 50mm foam on deck in no than 15mins. (150mm in machinery spaces / boiler rooms)

Fixed fire extinguishing system operable from outside compartment.

At least 4. One air hose type, remainder self contained.

For class 1

In addition to class 7 requirements:

Fire patrol system plus manual fire alarm in passenger/crew spaces. Fire detection and alarm system for inaccessible spaces.

At least 3 if over 4000t.

One for each hydrant.

Permanently pressurised or readily accessible remote control for pumps.

For all accommodation, public and service space. Special crew alarm system (may from part of general alarm system).

On each deck: 2 portable extinguishers within floodable zone below the bulkhead deck. Above that, One portable extinguisher each. One portable extinguisher and asbestos blanket per galley (two of each if galley area more then 45m²). One portable extinguisher per control room (radio room, navigating space, central fire recording space, emergency generator space). In spaces carrying motor vehicles: two extinguishers suitable for oil fires for each 40m of deck space, at least one each side & at least one each access point. In addition, two foam applicators for use in these spaces.

Two fireman’s outfits plus two extra outfits for each 80 metres of length of passenger / service space. One to be of air hose type, remainder self contained.


Fire / smoke detection system. No steam smothering.

Max. length 18m unless breadth of ship exceeds 27m in which case max. length 27m.

All nozzles to be dual purpose type.

liquid : between 9 and 13.2 litters., Dry powder: min 4.5 kg., CO2: min 3 kg. Max. weight 25.6 kg., Not more then 50% of extinguishers of dry powder.

Quantity : 30% of largest cargo compartment (45 % if Ro-Ro deck) and 40% Engine room, Min. Rate of flooding (E.R. ) 85% of total volume in two minutes ( if Ro-Ro deck must provide two thirds of CO2 within 10 minuets.

To be provide with means of stopping fans, machinery, pumps, etc. from outside of space. Also means of closing skylight, doorway, vents, and other openings from outside the space.

Outfit to widely separated, and to consist of :

Adjacent to landing area:

Mechanical ventilation system (at least 6 changes / hours). At least 2 portable extinguishers for every 40m length of deck spaces (1 at each access point). Fixed water spraying system ( water curtains ). Plus 3 water fog application units.

Displayed in public place for guidance of Master and officers. A duplicate set to be stored in a prominently marked watertight enclosure outside the deck house for the assistance of shore fire fighting personnel.

Q: What is requirements for CO2 that you must have to have on board for cargo hold and Machinery space separately?

A: For cargo hold- 30 % vol. of largest cargo hold if carried. 45 % vol. if cargo hold carry vehicles and vehicles are fitted with F. O. tanks and tanks are full of F. O.

For machinery space-40 % vol. of Machinery spaces excluding Engine casing. 35 % vol. of machinery spaces including Engine casing.

Q: Squat?

A: Squat is an increase in draught caused by a vessel travelling through the water at a significant speed with a limited under keel clearance.

Whilst it can occur in relating deep water, it is more pronounced when the depth of the water is less than twice the draft in other words, the under keel clearance is less than the v/l’s draught.

There is also likely to be a change in trim since the LCB is likely to change with change of draught, thereby creating a trimming moment.

Factors increasing squat

  • High speed ( squat α speed²)
  • High propeller speed
  • Deep draught
  • Shallow depth of water
  • High block co-efficient
  • Broad beam
  • Narrow channel
  • Large trim

Sign that v/l is experiencing shallow water effect

  • Speed decrease
  • R.P.M. decrease
  • vibration may occur
  • Steering may affected v/l becomes sluggish to manoeuvre.
  • Ship made waves increase in amplitude.
  • Ship wake changes colour / become muddy.

Q: Interaction - Action over taking?


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