COMPASS Q: Why do you correct a compass? A: As because the compass is most reliable equipment, which need not any power. In case of gyro failure compass can be used to steer the vessel for reach the next port. Q: Order of placing correctors?



Q: Why do you correct a compass?

A: As because the compass is most reliable equipment, which need not any power. In case of gyro failure compass can be used to steer the vessel for reach the next port.

Q: Order of placing correctors?

A: The correct order of placing the correctors is as follows.

  • Flinder’s Bar

The Flinder’s Bar acts a bit like a sphere forward of the compass bowl. It also affects heeling error, and can be magnetised with the fore and aft and the athwartships magnets. The heeling error magnets often induce poles in the top of the flinder’s bar, causing coefficient Permanent B. It is important that the Flinder’s Bar is positioned before the spheres, and all the permanent magnets.

  • Spheres

The spheres cause (and help to correct) heeling error and are affected by the permanent magnets. It is important that the spheres are positioned before the permanent corrector magnets are finally placed.

All soft iron correctors should be in position before final adjustment of the permanent corrector magnets.

3. Heeling error magnets.

The heeling error magnet causes Coefficient Permanent B by inducing the Flinder’s Bar, so it is important that the heeling error magnet is positioned before the horizontal fore and aft corrector magnets.

4 & 5. The fore and aft magnets and the athwartship magnets are done last and can in any order. It is probably best to correct the larger of the two coefficients first which steadies the card and makes the other correction easier to do. Coefficient B is usually the larger so the fore and aft magnet is usually positioned before the athwartship corrector magnet.

Q: When will you adjust compass?

A: Magnetic compasses should be adjusted when:

  • they are first installed;
  • they become unreliable;
  • the ship undergoes structural repairs or alterations that could affect its permanent and induced magnetism.
  • electrical or magnetic equipment close to the compass is added, removed or altered; or
  • a period of two years has elapsed since the last adjustment and a record of compass deviations has not been maintained, or the recorded deviations are excessive or when the compass shows physical defects.

Q: Ship laid up for what will you check before a swing?

A: Before swing the v/l I will check:

  • The vessel must be upright and all derrick, cranes, boats, etc. should be in their seagoing position.
  • Test the compass for friction by deflecting it slightly with a magnet and see that it returns to its original position, without sticking. This is best done by taking the bowl ashore.
  • Check the lubber line for fore and aft accuracy
  • Check the accuracy of the azimuth mirror
  • All movable gear near the compass must be in the seagoing position. No loose metal should be near the compass. If spare corrector magnets are being used, they must be placed as far away from the compass as is reasonably possible.
  • No ship within the 3 cables
  • Soft iron correctors should be tested for retained magnetism by rotating the spheres and end for ending the top piece of flinders bar. Residual magnetism may be removed by annealing ( heating to 700° and cooling slowly).

Q: What happened to compass once it is corrected?

A: It becomes more reliable.

Q: You have join a ship, where you will get information regarding compass and correctors?

A: Deviation card.

Q: Why wooden pieces under flinders bar?

A: To keep the top of the flinders bar above the level of the compass magnet.

Q: What is ship multiplier?

A: Difference between directional force at ship with spheres and directional force ashore is called ships multiplier ( l2 ).

Q: Your Company is going to take over a new ship, there are lot of electronic equipment to be fitted in the bridge, how you make sure this equipment are correctly positioned?

A: Check the compass safe distance on each equipment, place as far away but not less than the quoted safe distance by maker’s.

Q: How these equipment are going to influence the compass?

A: By creating a magnetic field.

Q: Which Certificate covers compass?

A: Safety Equipment Certificate. ( Makers name, Serial no. etc.)

Q: How do you find magnetic heading after taking bearing from 8 heading?

A: Take the bearing from 8 different heading (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW) add them together then divided 8.

Q: How do you put corrector for adjusting coeff. B and C

A: For Coefficient +B, Corrector red to the Fwd.

For Coefficient -B, Corrector blue to the Fwd.

For Coefficient +C, Corrector red to the starboard.

For Coefficient -C, Corrector blue to the starboard.

Q.1 : What ship certificate would you expect to find on:

  • a 1590 GRT mini-bulker?
  • a 900 GRT oil-rig supply vessel carrying bulk brine?
  • a 15000 DWT chemical tanker?
  • a 200000 DWT crude oil tanker built in 1980?

c) a large cruise liner?

A: Common :


  • Same as common
  • International pollution prevention cert. for the carriage of noxious liquid substance in bulk
  • COF
  • OPIC

Q.2 : a) In what circumstances must you send a navigating warning?

b) Who must you to address to?

  • By what means must you transmit it?

A: a) 1. Dangerous Ice

  • Dangerous derelict or other direct danger to navigation.
  • Tropical storm.
  • Subfreezing air temperature plus gale force winds causing severe ice accretion.
  • Wind > force 10 for which have no warning.
  • To ships in the vicinity and nearest CRS.
  • By every means of ship communication system.

Q.3: What is the different between an IMO-adopted an unadopted Traffic Separation Scheme?

A: IMO-approved schemes are adopted. They come into force 6 months after adoption. Rules for navigation in these schemes are as per COLREG rule 10. Unapproved schemes may lie totally in national waters and are unadopted. Rules for navigation in these schemes may differ from rule 10.

Q.4: a) Where do you find a list of all TSS, both adopted and unadopted?

b)How can you ensure that this list is up-to-date?

c)In what other publications is information published about TSS?


  • Annual Notice NO. 17 in the annual summery of Notice to Mariners. Unadopted scheme are marked in the list within asterisk.
  • By correcting it from Weekly notice to Mariners
  • Rule 10; Mariner’s Handbook; Ship’ routing; Routing chart (e.g. 5500); Annual Summery of Notice to Mariners; Pilot Books; Weekly Notice to Mariners.

Q.5: After abandoning your ship during a major fire, and having been rescued by another ship, what action you would take?

A: I would request the rescuing ship’s master to cancel the May day and send a navigational warning (e.g. if my ship was still burning and NUC). I would make a tally of survivors and report to the coastguard. I would report to owners and MAIB a.s.a.p. (through the coastguard if necessary.) I would request owners to notify the agent at the original port of destination, as well as charterers and receivers. I would inform the P & I club’s correspondent at the port where the rescuing ship takes the survivors. I would prepare reports for owners and MAIB. (The P & I club and charterers may also want copies.)

Q.6: What action would you take if, on joining a ship that was not due for its Safety Equipment survey for another six months, you found that some aspect of the lifesaving or fire fighting appliance were not in good order?

A: Either make good the defects before sailing or apply to MCA for a general inspection and get MCA’s written approval to sail. Unless defects are serious enough to warrant detention, MCA will probably issue a letter of compliance.

Q.7: When you must steering gear be tested?

A: The Master must, within 12 hours before departure of the ship, cause the steering gear to be checked and tested so as to ensure that it is working satisfactorily.

In the case of ship regularly making more then one voyage a week to or from the same port a check and test of the steering gear need only be made once in that week unless a part of the steering gear or its control system has been eliminated or changed since the last test.

Emergency steering gear must be tested at least every 3 months.

Q.8: While on a 1-year Time Charter, running between the Persian Gulf and Japan, your Safety Equipment Certificate becomes due for renewal in one month’s time. What action would you take?

A: 1. Inform owner to arrange surveyor.

  • Keep everything presentable to the surveyor.
  • Inform agent.

Q.9: a) What purpose of an OPIC certificate?

  • When it is to be produced by a master?
  • How is an OPIC certificate obtain?

A: a) To certify that there is in force in respect of the ship a policy of insurance or other financial security satisfying the requirements of Article VII of the international Convention on Civil liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1969 (the CLC).

  • On arrival at and departure from any port or terminal, to Customs (in UK) or any state or harbour official requesting it.
  • By application of the owners to MCA London Regional Marine Office (Orpington, Kent), enclosing documentary proof that an insurance policy exists. Proof is normally shown by a blue certificate issued by the owners P&I club.

Q.10: What OLB entry must be made on the change of Master?

A: 1. The off-going Master should make an entry (Entry no. 4) in the narrative section to the effect that he has delivered to me (in coming master) all documents relating to the ship and the crew, and both he and I would sign this entry.

2. I would add my name and certificate number to the list on the front cover.

Q.11: Who would you inform after:

  • spilling bunkers in a foreign port?

b) sustaining collision damage at sea in way of a bunker fuel tank?

A: a) Coastguard ; Agent ; owner ; P & I club ; MAIB ; Port authority.

  • Coastguard : Owner ; P & I club ; MAIB ; Classification society ; Charterer.

Q.12: What are the contents of an International Tonnage Certificate?

A: Ship’s particulars; Length; breadth and Moulded depth; Gross tonnage and net tonnage.

Q.13: What survey or inspections are required by Load line legislation?

A: 1. Initial

  • Annual
  • Intermediate
  • periodic

Q.14: What items come into the scope of the load line periodic inspection?

A: 1. Load line mark

  • Ship’s structures and fitting for water tight integrity (hatch way, side opening, vents, air pipe, freeing ports)
  • Crew protection.

Q.15: What is a classification Society?

A: An international Classification society has been defined as an independent, non-profit distributing organisation which develops and updates adequate publish rules, regulations and standards for the safe design, construction and periodical maintenance of ship which are capable of trading internationally, and implements these on a world wide basis using its own exclusive staff.

Q.16: What is the purpose of ship classification?

A: It is a requirements of hull and machinery insurance, P & I clubs, ships financiers and cargo insurers. It also useful in sale and purchase

Q.17: What are you legal obligations on receiving a May Day signal from a nearby ship?

A: Acknowledge received of message and proceed with all speed for assistance, and if possible inform parties and SMC.

Q.18: a) When are you released from obligation?

b) What OLB entries must be made concerning distress signal?

A: a) 1. On learning that my vessel is not requisitioned and or more ship have been requisitioned and are complying with the requisition.

2. Being informed by the persons in distress or by the search and rescue service or by the master of another ship which has reached such persons that assistance is no longer necessary.


Q.19: What SOLAS certificate would you expect to find on your next ship?

A: 1. PSSC.

  • SCC.
  • SEC.
  • SRC.

Q.20: What action would you take regarding a seaman who was drunk:

  • On duty?

b) Off duty?

A: a) Ensure the safety of the ship, personnel and the seaman himself. Remove him from the duty and substitute another. Sober him up. Discipline him in accordance with the MN Code Conduct, if applicable.(was he drunk enough to jeopardise safety of ship and personnel?) The offence may justify dismissal.

b) Ensure safety of the ship, personnel and seaman himself. If no threat to safety, take no action beyond an informal caution unless company’s, charterer’s or ship’s rules prohibit alcohol. Perhaps give a D & A test before he starts work again.

Q.21: a) Under what circumstances would you note of protest?

  • How would you note of protest?

c) What is meant by ‘extending Protest?

A: a) After every case of General Average; after wind and/or sea conditions have been encountered which may have damaged cargo; after wind and/or sea conditions have been encountered which caused failure to make a cancelling date; after cargo is shipped in a condition likely to deteriorate during the forthcoming voyage (also, Bs/L should be appropriately claused after consultation of with the shipper and P & I correspondent); after the ship has been damaged from any cause; after a serious breach of the C/P by the charterer or his agent (e.g. undue delay, refusal to load, cargo not a sort allowed by the C/P, refusal to pay demurrage, refusal to accept Bs/L after signing because of clausing by master, sending vessel to an unsafe port, etc.); after the consignee fails to discharge or take delivery of the cargo or fails to pay freight.

b) Go to notary public, or other appropriate person with one or more witnesses from the crew who have knowledge of the facts. Take Official log book, deck log and all other relevant information surrounding the event being protested. Make sworn statement before notary, who entries it register of protests. Obtain at least 3 certified copies of protest ( owners, adjuster and ship’s file). Pay fee (master’ disbursement) and obtain receipt.

c) * Since it is often impossible to ascertain the full extent of loss or damage at the time of noting of protest, an extended protest should be made when the relevant facts have come to light, which may be, for example, when a surveyor’s report has been received. It therefore necessary at the time making original protest to ‘reserved the right to extend the protest at the time and place convenient’.

* The extended protest document will always be required by an average adjuster when prepare a general average statement.

* Although it is good practice to always extended protest, in the UK it is not legally necessary in order to safeguard owners’ interest.

Q.22: Under what circumstances would you write a letter of protest?

A: When cargo is being loaded too fast or too slow; when stevedores are damaging ship or mishandling ship’s equipment; when wash from harbour craft is causing problems for ship; when cargo specification is ‘wrong’. When there is discrepancy between ship’s and shore cargo figures; when berth or fendering arrangements are inadequate; when longshoremen/dockers are misusing ship’s equipment and ignoring duty officers’ advice; when passing vessels cause ranging, wash damage, etc. whilst loading / discharging; in any other sitution where the master wishes to formally record his dissatisfaction with arrangement over which the other party has some control.

Q23: What are the offence for which a UK master could be fine up to £ 50,000 on summary conviction?

A: 1. Concealing British Nationality.

  • Causing a ship to appear to British
  • Failing to render assistance to other vessel following a collision.
  • Ship dangerously unsafe in UK port
  • Disobeying “Section 137” government directions following a shipping a shipping casualty.
  • Entering or leaving UK port or terminal without a valid OPIC
  • Leaving UK port in contravention of a Detention Order
  • Carrying passing in excess of the number of permitted by the passenger certificate
  • Proceeding against the traffic flow in a traffic separation scheme.

Q.24: What is the difference between summery conviction and conviction on indictment?

A: Summary of convection is a convection by magistrates in England or Wales, or a sheriff in Scotland, following a trial in which summary procedure is used. There is no jury, and the judge(s) decide questions of fact and law; their sentencing power are limited. It is used mainly for minor offences. Convection on indictment is for more serious offence. The convection is by a jury ( of 12 in England or Wales, or 15 in Scotland) who decide questions of fact, while the judge decides question of law only. Fines may be unlimited but prison terms are limited.

Q.25 : What reports would make if you lost a container-load of chemical in drums overside in bad weather ?

A: Navigational warning

Q.26: What is the procedure for reporting to custom on arrival in a UK port from aboard ?

A: 1. Form c.13 to submit - Master’s declaration-at least 2 copies

  • c.142 - crew declaration-2 copies
  • submit a cargo declaration, either on the c.13 or by a cargo manifest, IMO form or computer disk (with custom approval)
  • attach form PAS 15(arr) passenger return if any passengers on board
  • have several copies of the current crew list ready.

Q.27: When are light dues paid, and on what basis are they calculated ?

A: for outward clearance and on the basis of net tonnage.

Q.28 : Before offering to tow a disable ship, what factors would you consider ?

A: A vessel requiring a tow is not necessarily in distress. I would therefore carefully consider

  • whether the contract of carriage (as contained in c/p or b/l) gives me liberty to tow
  • whether I have sufficient bunkers and/or fresh water on board for the tow, and whether sufficient reserves can be maintained, throughout and after the tow
  • whether there is a possibility of missing a cancelling date under the c/p
  • whether the nature of my cargo permits a lengthening of the voyage (which is especially relevant aboard a refer)
  • whether my v/l’s machinery is of adequate power and in good enough condition for towing
  • whether the value of the v/l requesting the tow, plus her cargo, is likely to be of sufficient value to merit a salvage service by my ship

Q.29: a) In what circumstances might an Interim Certificate of Class be issued?

  • What are the contents of an Interim Certificate of Class?

A: a) When a Classification society surveyor can confirm to his society’s committed that repairs or surveys have been carried out to his satisfaction, and that he consider the ship to be in a fit and efficient condition to continue her voyage.

b) A summery of class and statutory surveys held or work carried out, with status (e.g. complete); the date of completion of the survey or work (for the class record); a list of any items credited for the hull and/or machinery special survey; the survey’s recommendation to his society for continuance of class; any condition of class imposed; any condition of class deleted; surveyor’s signature, port and date.

Q.30: What action would you take if a consignee failed to produce an original bill of lading at the discharge port?

A: Where the party claming to be the rightful receiver request delivery of his goods but can not produce an original bill of lading ( perhaps because of a delay in the mail, or because of a theft of documents from his office) I would instruct the agent to inform the receiver so that no cargo can be discharge until either; 1) an original bill of lading can be presented; or 2) an acceptable letter of indemnity (LOI) is given by the receiver.

Q.31: What must a shipper make available before you load dangerous goods:

  • in bulk liquid form?
  • in package form?

A: A dangerous goods Declaration or a marine pollutants declaration as appropriate. A combined declaration is allowed. The declaration can be made on a dangerous goods/Marine Pollutants note.

Q.32: a) What are difference between dangerous goods and marine pollutant?

  • Where would you find a list of all recognised ‘marine pollutants’?

A: b) In the IMDG code. They are indicate by the words ‘Marine Pollutant’ and a symbol of a triangle containing a fish, with an overlaid cross.

Q:.33: a) There is no section in the ORB specifically for recording bunkering operation. where would you record these?

  • Where must Master’s signature appear in the ORB?
  • For how long must an ORB be kept on board?

A: a) Part-1, Section-H. concern additional operations procedures and general remarks.

  • At the end of each page.
  • 3 years from last entry made.

Q.34: a) who can demand to see your Official Log Book?

b) How would you correct an erroneous entry in the OLB?

A a) To the RSS; an MCA Superintend ; a proper officer; an MCA Surveyor; or a custom officer. In practice I would show it also to any foreign state or harbour official who demanded to see it, because local law may require this.

b) With a further entry. I would leave the incorrect entry as it is and make a new entry referring to the mistake, e.g. “ In previous entry , for smith read Jones”

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