Abaca. Philippine plant, of plantain genus, from which manilla hemp is made. Aback. Said of a sail when the wind is on the fore side of it. Abaft. On the after side of. Further towards the stern. Abandonment

A - English Maritime terminology

Abaca. Philippine plant, of plantain genus, from which manilla hemp is made.

Aback. Said of a sail when the wind is on the fore side of it.

Abaft. On the after side of. Further towards the stern.

Abandonment. Surrender of an insured vessel and of all claims to ownership. Made by owners to underwriters when vessel is a constructive total loss and insurance is to be paid.

Abandonment of Voyage. Renunciation of, or withdrawal from, an intended voyage—whether done voluntarily or through force of circumstances.

Abandon Ship. Entirely to vacate a ship and to relinquish, or to repudiate, all duties towards her preservation. Done only when the carrying out of these duties is impossible, or when the destruction of the ship is imminent.

Abeam. Position or direction that lies at right angles to ship's fore and aft line.

Aberration. 'A wandering from the path.' In astronomy, is the difference between the true and apparent positions of a heavenly body when caused by Earth's movement in space: it is too small to affect navigation. In meteorology, is the difference between directions of true and apparent winds that is caused by ship's movement when inclined to wind direction. In optics, is the deviation of light rays from a true focus.

Able Seaman. An experienced seaman competent to perform the usual and customary duties on deck. In sailing ships, had to be able to 'hand, reef and steer'. In Merchant Navy, has to have served satisfactorily on deck and pass an exam. In Royal Navy, has to have served a specified period at sea and satisfactorily completed certain courses of instruction.

Abnormal Refraction. Displacement of visible horizon and observed objects by an unusual amount. Objects that would, normally, be below horizon may be seen above it. Usual check is by 'Back Altitude'.

Aboard. On board. In, into or inside a vessel. Close alongside.

'Aboard Main Tack.' Order to haul main tack down to chess tree. Given when sailing close-hauled in a square-rigged ship.

Abordage.* The act of boarding and taking an enemy vessel.

About. Used, in conjunction with other word or words, with reference to changing from one tack to the other when under sail.

About Ship. To put a ship, under sail, on the opposite tack. 2. Order to crew to go to stations for tacking or wearing.

A-Box. Said of yards when those on one mast are braced in a direction opposite to that of yards on next mast.

'A' Bracket. Forging that carries after end of propeller shaft in twin-screw vessel. Upper arm is secured to shell plating or to a plate inside vessel, lower arm is secured to keel or to a steel casing on keel.

Abreast. Said of ships on parallel courses when abeam of each other. Objects inside a ship are abreast when they are in the same transverse line.

Abroad.* Said of a flag, or sail, when it is hoisted or extended.

Absence Without Leave. Remaining away from ship without permission, but not showing intention of deserting.

Absentee. One who fails to return to his ship, or place of duty, but who has not shown any intention to desert.

Absolute Force. In magnetism, is intensity of Earth's magnetism, or of a magnet's force, expressed in dynes.

Absolute Humidity. Weight of water held in a given volume of atmospheric air. Usually expressed in grammes per cubic metre.

Absolute Pressure. Pressure of a fluid measured above a perfect vacuum. In practical engineering, it is taken as steam pressure plus 15 lbs. Absolute pressure of condenser is taken to be-in barometric inches—half height of barometer minus vacuum reading.

Absolute Temperature. Temperature measured from an Absolute zero at which there is an entire absence of heat. Zero is equiv­alent to –273 -l°C (-459-58°F). Usually measured in Centi­grade units.

Absolute Total Loss. Complete destruction, or removal, of ship or goods from hands of owners; or such a change in them that they cease to be what they were. Term is used, also, in assess­ment of loss of ship; absolute loss including loss of freight that ship was earning.

Absorption Coefficient. Amount of radiation absorbed by a given surface when expressed as a proportion of the radiation falling on it.

Absorptive Power. Rate at which radiant energy is absorbed at surface of a body. Varies with temperature and wavelength of the energy.

A-Burton. Stowage of casks, barrels, etc., so that they lie length­wise athwartships.

Abyss. That volume of ocean lying below 300 fathoms from surface.

Abyssal. Pertaining to the abyss.

Acalephae. Class of sea creatures that sting if touched. Includes jellyfish and 'Portuguese man o' war'.

Acamar. Star q Eridani. S.H.A. 316°; Dec. S 40°; Mag. 3-1. Acceleration. A hastening or increase in rate of motion. In astro­nomy, is an apparent gaining of one heavenly body upon another when due to superior speed, a difference of direction, or both of these.

Acceleration of Fixed Stars. Progressive earliness of fixed star transits as compared with Sun's transits. Owing to Sun's east­ward movement along Ecliptic, stars transit any meridian nearly four minutes earlier each day when referred to solar time.

Acceleration of Planetary Motion. Increase in a planet's angular velocity when travelling from aphelion to perihelion (in accord­ance with Kepler's second law).

Acceleration of Sidereal Time. Amount of sidereal time gained by a sidereal clock in any given interval of mean solar time.

Acceleration of Wind. Apparent increase in wind-force when due to ship approaching direction of wind.

Acceleration Tables. Give the amount by which any mean time value of an interval must be increased to give the sidereal time value.

Acceptance. A signing of a document as evidence of having read it, and of readiness to fulfil its requirements.

Accident Boat. Boat that is kept turned out and ready for instant manning and lowering in case of emergency.

Accident Report. Statement rendered to Department of T. & I. by Master when a British ship has been damaged, or when serious injury or death has been caused on board by any accident.

Accommodation. Spaces in ship set apart for messrooms, sleeping places, ablutions and recreation. Statutory allowance of floor space varies from 12 square feet and upwards for each person.

Accommodation Ladder. Sloping series of steps, usually of wood, fitted with handrails and extending from waterline to an entry into ship, to facilitate safe embarkation and disembarkation.

Account Position by.* 'Estimated Position.'

Account of Wages Book. Supplied by Shipping Office to Master when engaging crew. Accounts of each member of crew are kept in duplicate, one copy being given to man, and the other to Shipping Office, when paying off.

Accul.* Old name for an arm of the sea with no port or river.

Accumulated Rate. The daily rate of a chronometer multiplied by number of days since last comparison.

Accumulator. An electric storage battery.

Accumulator Capacity. Storage power of an accumulator; usually expressed in ampere-hours.

Accustomed Average. 'Average accustomed.'

Achernar. Star a Eridani. R.A. 0lh 36m; Dec. S 57°; Mag. 0-6. S.H.A. 336°. Diameter is four times that of Sun, candlepower is 200 times greater. Distant 66 light years.

Achromatic Lens. Two or more lenses, in combination, that correct the chromatic aberration always present in single lens.

Acidity of Boiler Water. Is a result of impurities in it. Usually ascertained by use of litmus paper or methyl orange.

Acker. Alternative name for 'Eagre'.

Acker's Time Scale. First system of time allowances in yacht racing. Introduced, 1843, by G. Holland Acker. Based on length of course and tonnage.

Acker's Yacht Code. System of yacht signalling embodied in Acker's 'Universal Yacht Signals'.

Ackman.* One who steals from a ship in navigable waters. A fresh water pirate.

Acknowledgement. Formal admission that something has been received, or that some specified service has been rendered, or that certain liabilities have been incurred.

Aclinic Line. Magnetic equator. Line passing through all positions on Earth at which there is no magnetic dip.

A-Cockbill. State of an anchor when suspended from cathead by the cathead stopper only. State of a yard when one yard arm is topped by the lift, the other arm being boused down. This is done when using yard as a derrick; also done to prevent yard projecting over the side when vessel is berthed.

Acorn. Ornamental finish, resembling an acorn, at head of an upper wooden mast.

Acquittance. Formal and written discharge from a specified duty, liability or undertaking.

Acrab. Name sometimes given to star b Scorpii.

Acronical. Said of a heavenly body that rises at sunset and sets at sunrise.

Acrostolion.* Bow ornament, usually circular or spiral, carried by ancient warships.

Acrux. Star a Crucis. S.H.A. 174°; Dec. S 63°; Mag. 1-1.

Actinometer. Instrument for measuring intensity of Sun's rays, or of actinic rays.

Actinozoa. Class of sea creatures that includes jelly fish, sea anemones and the coral polyps responsible for coral reefs.

Action. Engagement or battle with hostile ships or forces.

Action Stations. Positions manned by personnel of a warship when battle is imminent.

Active Bond. A written undertaking to pay that commences to earn interest directly it is issued. Act of God. Casualty due to extraordinary natural causes and circumstances, to which there was no human contribution, and which could not have been foreseen or averted by the exercise of any amount of reasonable intelligence or endeavour.

Actual Total Loss. 'Absolute Total Loss.'

Address Commission. Commission payable at discharging port.

Adhara. Star e Cams Major. S.H.A. 256°; Dec. S 29°; Mag. 1-6.

Adiabatic. Applied to changes in temperature, pressure or volume of a fluid when occurring without heat being taken in or given up.

Adiabatic Lapse Rate. Falling rate of temperature of atmosphere by 5-4°F for each 1000 feet of height (0-98°C per 100 metres). Due to atmospheric expansion through reduced pressure.

Adie Barometer. Former name of a 'Kew Pattern' barometer.

Adjustment. Putting into correct relationship, or into proper place.

Adjustment of Average. See 'Average Adjustment'.

Adjustment of Instruments. Correct setting of those parts that have variable positions, or that have become displaced.

Adjustment of Magnetic Compass. Name loosely given to the compensation made at a magnetic compass.

Adjustments of Sextant. Comprise the setting of index and horizon mirrors so that they are perpendicular to plane of arc, setting the mirrors parallel when the index is at zero, setting line of

collimation parallel to plane of arc.

Admiral. Naval officer competent to command a fleet of ships. In Elizabethan times denoted ship in which senior officer of a group of ships was borne. In the fishing fleet, may be applied to the senior skipper of a group of drifters working in company.

Admiral of the Blue.* Originally, admiral commanding rear division of a fleet. Later, a rear-admiral.

Admiral of the Fleet. Highest rank in Royal Navy. Distinguishing flag is Union Flag at mainmast head.

Admiral of the Red.* Senior admiral, commanding centre division of a fleet. Later, an admiral.

Admiral of the White.* Originally, admiral commanding van division of a fleet. Later, a vice-admiral.

Admiralty. Control of the seas. 2. The Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain, etc. 3. The Board of Admiralty. 4. The buildings in which the offices of the Board of Admiralty are situated.

Admiralty Charts. Charts produced and issued by the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty.

Admiralty Coefficients. Values used for comparing efficiency of hull forms. Based on displacement, speed, indicated horse power, and fuel consumption.

Admiralty Court. Usual name for the 'High Court of Admiralty' in which shipping cases are investigated and adjudicated upon.

Admiralty Flag. The proper flag of the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain, and of the Lords Commissioners for executing that office. Is a red flag with a horizontal yellow anchor.

Admiralty Hitch. Name sometimes given to a marline spike hitch.

Admiralty List of Lights, Fog Signals and Visual Time Signals. Nine volumes, arranged geographically, giving full particulars of navigational aids mentioned in title. Do not give particulars of buoyage.

Admiralty List of Radio Signals. Volumes published by Hydro-graphic Department of Admiralty. Give general regulations and signals for communicating with coast stations and services; give details of Radio Beacons, Time Signals, Ice and Navigational Warnings, etc.

Admiralty Method of Tidal Predictions. Method of finding tidal state at a required position by use of data in Admiralty Tide Tables and in conjunction with form H.D. 289.

Admiralty Pattern Anchor. Older type of anchor in which shank and arms are fixed and stock is at right angles to arms.

Admiralty Sailing Directions. Series of volumes, issued by Hydro-graphic Department of Admiralty, covering all navigable waters of the world. Give all possible information to the navigator concerning navigation in the waters they cover. Often called 'Pilots'.

Admiralty Tide Tables. Volumes giving daily predictions of times of high and low waters at principal ports and positions in the world, together with data and instructions for obtaining times and height of high and low water at ports for which predictions are not given.

Admiralty Warrant. Official authority from Admiralty to wear a blue ensign, a red ensign defaced or a yacht club burgee on a British vessel. Warrants are issued for other purposes.

Adrift. Unattached to the shore or ground and at the mercy of wind and tide. Colloquially used to mean missing from its place; absent from place of duty; broken away from fastening.

Adult. Passage rates in emigrant and passenger ships consider any person of 12 years of age, or over, to be an adult. Two persons less than 12 years of age count as an adult.

Ad Valorem. According to value. Used when goods referred to are assessed by their value, and not by weight or quantity.

Advance. Distance between position at which a vessel commences to alter course and the position at which she is on her new course. It is measured along a line parallel to original course.

Advance Freight. Proportion of contracted freight that may be paid on completion of loading, if mutually agreed. As freight is not due until cargo is delivered, this advance is debited with insurance and interest charges.

Advance Note. Issued, at Master's option, to a newly-engaged seaman. Authorises payment of a stated sum to the holder of the note after man has sailed in ship. Charged to a man's account. Rarely exceeds one month's wages.

Advection. In meteorology, denotes the horizontal transfer of heat by air currents.

Adventure. In insurance, is any undertaking that involves a risk or hazard.

Advertise. To announce or publish in such a manner that a matter should come to the notice of those concerned in normal circum­stances.

Advice. Formal notification of information concerning a trans­action.

Advice Boat.* Small vessel employed in distributing written or verbal orders and information to vessels of a fleet or squadron.

Aerial. Single wire, or system of wires, forming a radio antenna (U.S. 'antenna').

Aerolite. Meteorite that consists mainly of stone. Aerology. Study of the atmosphere, particularly the upper reaches of it.

Affidavit. Solemn declaration made before a person legally author­ised to administer an oath.

Affirmed. Ratified and confirmed.

Affreight.* To charter or hire a ship.

Affreightment. The chartering or hiring of a ship. Afloat. Completely waterborne. Afore.* Forward of; before.

Aft. Towards the stern; near the stern. Sometimes used as denoting officers' quarters. Applied to wind, means within four points from right aft.

After. Further aft; nearer the stern.

After date. In a financial document, means 'after date mentioned in document.'

Afterglow. Sunlight reflected from high clouds in west after Sun has set.

Afterguard. Originally, the hands who worked the after sails, and who were frequently berthed aft. Later, become synonymous with officers-for the same reason.

After Leech. Lee leech of a square sail when yard is braced round. Sometimes used, incorrectly, for leech of a trysail-to differen­tiate it from the luff (or 'fore leech').

After part. That part of a vessel, or of any space or fitting in a vessel, that is nearer the stern. 2. That part of a watch who work, or would have worked, the after sails.

After Peak. Enclosed space immediately forward of stern frame. Enclosed by a transverse bulkhead and side and bottom plating. , Used as a ballast tank or store.

After Sight. In a financial document, means 'After payer has endorsed it as an acknowledgement of sighting it.'

After Swim. Submerged after part of hull that is shaped to give a lead in for water to propeller and rudder, and to give increased area of water plane with increased draught.

Aftmost. Furthest aft. Nearest the stern.

Against the Sun. Anti-clockwise circular motion. Left-handed ropes are coiled down in this way.

Agent. One who acts for another. In ship's business, is one who acts for one or more of the parties interested in the charter. The same agent may act on behalf of the shipowner and the charterer.

Age of Diurnal Inequality. Interval between instant of Moon's transit and the occurrence of maximum declinational effect in tide. By harmonic constants: Age of Diurnal Inequality= - 0 -91 (K°-O°).

Age of Diurnal Tide. Interval between time of Moon's maximum declination and time of the following diurnal spring tide.

Age of Moon. Internal, in days and fractions, since Moon was new. Maximum value if about 29 ½ days.

Age of Parallax Inequality. Interval between instant when Moon is in perigee and occurrence of maximum parallactic effect in tide. Usual value is between one and three days after.

Age of Phase Inequality. 'Age of Tide.'

Age of Semidiurnal Tide. Interval between syzygy and occurrence of spring semidiurnal tide.

Age of Tide. Interval between syzygy and the occurrence of the spring tide due to it. Value may be from more than 7 days after syzygy to nearly a day before it. Average age of British tide is about 1 ½ days.

Ageton's Tables. H.O. 211 (U.S.A.) give, by inspection, azimuth and calculated altitude when latitude, hour angle, altitude and declination are known.

Agger. Name sometimes given to a 'double tide'.

Aggregate. Sand or other material mixed with cement when making concrete. For marine work sand is usual, and may be used in proportion of up to six times the amount of cement.

Aggregate Freight. Balance of freight due at port of delivery when all additions and deductions, for demurrage, advanced freight, etc., have been taken into account.

Aggregating Clause. Clause, in any agreement, that allows several items to be collected under one heading. One of the 'Institute' clauses.

Agonic Line. Line on Earth's surface that passes through all places where there is no magnetic variation of compass.

Agreement. Short name for 'Articles of Agreement' entered into by Master and crew of a vessel.

Aground. State of a vessel when she ceases to be completely water-borne and her weight is taken, partially or completely, by the ground.

Agulhas Current. Warm current flowing southward and westward from Mozambique Channel and Indian Ocean to SE Coast of Africa. Width is up to 50 miles; rate is occasionally nearly 4 knots. A.H. Initials of 'Anno Hegirae' (the year of the Flight of Mahomet). Epoch of Mahommedan Calendar, A.D. 622.

Ahead. Direction in front of ship. Position in front of ship.

'Ahoy.' Seaman's call to attract attention. Said, on good authority, to be a Viking cry.

A-Hull. Said of a vessel riding out a gale broadside on, under bare poles and with helm lashed a-lee. Air. Gaseous mixture that forms the atmosphere. Composed of, by volume, 78% nitrogen, 21 % oxygen, and traces of neon, helium, krypton, hydrogen, zenon and ozone. Has low thermal con­ductivity.

Air Almanac. Ephemeris specially compiled for use in air navigation. Arranged in daily pages for ready reference and determination of Greenwich Hour Angles to nearest minute of arc.

Aircraft Carrier. Warship specially designed so that aircraft can take off and alight upon her.

Air Density. Weight of air of a given pressure and in a given volume at a given temperature. At temperature 273°A, pressure 1000mb, density is 0.001276 grammes per cubic centremetre.

Air Mass. Meteorological term for a mass of atmosphere that is bounded by fronts and differs from surrounding atmosphere.

Air Meter. Small portable anemometer, on windmill principle, for measuring wind-speed.

Air Pipe. Pipe that allows air to escape as a tank is filled. 2. Pipe through which air is pumped to a diver.

Air Pocket. Descending current of atmospheric air; such as those that develop on the lee side of steep cliffs.

Air-Speed Indicator. Portable instrument, with pitot head, used for measuring wind velocities between 10 and 70 knots.

Airt. Scottish word for a direction by compass.

Air Thermometer. Thermometer filled with dry air. Expansion and contraction of enclosed air, due to heat content, are measured by pressure required to keep the volume at a constant value. Pressure thus indicates temperature. Range is exceed­ingly large, readings to - 300°F being obtainable.

Airy's Figure of Earth. Dimensions of Earth as computed by Sir George Airy (1801-1892), Astronomer Royal. Equatorial diameter 20,923,715 ft, polar diameter 20,853,810 ft., com­pression 1/2293 Used in British Ordnance Survey.

Airy's Method of Great Circle Sailing. Used for finding position of mid-point in a great circle course between two places when rhumb line is laid off on a Mercator chart. Rhumb line is bisected and a perpendicular to it is extended towards or through Equator. Tables then give latitude in which the great circle course cuts the perpendicular.

Aitken's Nucleus Counter. Instrument for counting number of hygroscopic particles in a given volume of air, which is cooled adiabatically by expansion. Water droplets, each containing a nucleus, are deposited; these are counted with aid of a micro­scope.

Aker. Name given to a tidal bore sometimes met with in estuaries. Cognate with 'Eagre', 'Acker'.

Al. Arabic word meaning 'The'.

Alba.* Old name for a lighthouse or beacon.

Albacore. Small edible fish of mackerel family. Found near West Indies and in Pacific Ocean.

Albedo. Light reflecting power of Moon, planet or satellite. Value is expressed as a fraction that denotes proportion of light that is reflected. Term may be used in connection with radiations other than light.

Albert Medal. Established by Queen Victoria, in 1866, and awarded for saving life at sea. Later, extended to include saving life on land. Ribbon is blue for sea medals, red for land medals.

Albiero. Star b Cygni. S.H.A. 68°; Dec. N 28°; Mag. 3-2.

Alcor. Name of a small star close to Mizar in Ursa Major. Is often called 'the rider' (of one of the horses of Charles' Wain), or 'the Tester' (of eyesight).

Alcyone. Star a Tauri. S.H.A. 304°; Dec. N 24°; Mag. 3-0. Name is Greek for 'Kingfisher'. At one time was thought to be the central star of the Universe.

Aldebaran. Star Tauri. a R.A. 04h 33m; Dec. N 16°; Mag. 1-1. S.H.A. 292°. Diameter is 60 times that of Sun; distant 57 light years; temperature 3300°A. Is one of the Hyades. Name is Arabic for 'Eye of the Bull'.

Alderamin. Star a Cephei. S.H.A. 41°; Dec. N 62°; Mag. 2-6.

Aldis Signal Lamp. Electric flashing lamp for signalling. Beam is focussed on receiver, and cannot easily be seen by anyone on whom it is not trained or directed. Range exceeds 20 miles.

A-Lee. Towards, or on, that side of a ship that is further from the wind.

Aleutian Current. Ocean current setting S'ly through Aleutian Islands until it meets Alaskan Current, some of which it deflects into the North Pacific Drift.

Aleutian Lows. Meteorological depressions that frequently form over the Aleutian Islands.

Algae. Flowerless aquatic vegetation usually known as seaweed.

Algebar. Name sometimes given to constellation Orion, usually by poets. Means 'The strong and valiant one'.

Algeiba. Star g Leonis. S.H.A. 206°; Dec. N 20°; Mag. 2-3.

Algenib. Star g Pegasi. S.H.A. 357°; Dec. N 15°; Mag. 2-9.

Algol. Star b Persei and, also b Medusae. Is a binary star, one dark and one light, and varies between 3rd and 5th magnitudes in less than 3 days. S.H.A. 314°; Dec. N 41°. Name is Arabic for 'ghoul' or 'demon'. Was probably looked upon as the winking eye of a monster.

Alhena. Star g Geminorum. S.H.A. 261°; Dec. N 16°; Mag. 1-9.

Alidade. Pivoted sight bar that moves over a graduated arc.

Alioth. Star e Ursae Majoris. S.H.A. 167°; Dec. N 56°; Mag. 1-7.

Alkaid (Benetnasch). Star h Ursae Majoris. S.H.A. 154°; Dec. N 50°. Arabic for 'The Chief.

All Aback. With the wind on fore side of the sails. Used collo­quially to mean 'astounded' or 'flabbergasted'.

All Aboard. Order to embark.

All Hands. All the crew.

All in the Wind. With all sails shaking through wind being on their luffs. Normally occurs when ship passes through wind from one tack to the other, but can also be caused by bad steering when close hauled.

Allonge. Sheets attached to a Bill of Exchange for further endorse­ments when there is no more room on the Bill itself.

All other Perils. Phrase used in marine insurance policy to mean 'perils similar to those specifically mentioned'.

Allotment Note. Authority given by a seaman for the shipowner to pay part of the seamen's earnings to a near relative, or to a savings bank, nominated by the seaman. The amount to be paid and the intervals between payments are, within limits, at the discretion of the seaman.

Allowance. Short name for 'Fresh water allowance'. 2. Name often given to gratuity given to cargo trimmers and others by shipmaster.

All Standing. Applied to a sudden stopping of a ship when brought about without engines being eased or sail reduced. To turn in all standing is to lie down fully dressed.

All Told. All being counted.

Almak. Star g Andromedae. S.H.A. 330°; Dec. N 42°; Mag. 2-2.

Almanac. Presentation of certain information day by day for a year.

Almucantars.* Circles parallel to horizon and passing through each degree of the vertical circles.

Almucantar's Staff.* Olden instrument, made of pear wood or boxwood with a 15° arc. Was used for measuring amplitude.

Al Na'ir. Star a Gruis. S.H.A. 29°; Dec. S 47°; Mag. 2.2.

Alnilam. Star e Orionis. S.H.A. 276°; Dec. S 01°; Mag. 1-8.

Aloft. Has a variety of meanings. In the 18th century often meant above the mess deck. More usually means above the highest part of the upper deck; above the sheerpole; above the lower tops.

Alongside. Close beside a ship, wharf or jetty. In charter parties, means that ship is so close to wharf or lighter that cargo can be transferred from one to the other by tackles.

Aloof.* To windward.

Alow. Below; low down; not aloft.

Alow and Aloft. When applied to sails, means below and above the lower yards.

Alpha, a First letter of Greek alphabet. Commonly used as a symbol to denote a known quantity. Prefixed to name of a constellation, it denotes principal star in that constellation.

Alphard. Star a Hydrae. S.H.A. 219°; Dec. S 08°; Mag. 2-2. Also called 'Cor Hydrae'.

Alphecca. Star a Coronae Borealis. S.H.A. 127°; Dec. N 27°; Mag. 2-3.

Alpheratz. Star a Andromedae. S.H.A. 358°; Dec. N 29°; Mag. 2-1. Alt. Abbreviation for 'Altitude'.

Altair. Star a Aquilæ. S.H.A. 63°; Dec. N 9°; Mag. 0-9. Dia­meter is about that of Sun; candlepower is nine times greater; temperature is 8600°A; distance is 16 light years.

Altar. Step in a dry dock, on which lower ends of shores rest.

Alt-Azimuth. Contraction of 'Altitude-azimuth', the two horizon co-ordinates for fixing position of a heavenly body.

Alt-Azimuth Instrument. One that measures altitude and azimuth simultaneously—such as a theodolite.

Alternating Current. Electric current with rapidly alternating

positive and negative polarities.

Alternating Light. Navigational beacon light that changes colour in each period of its visibility.

Altimeter. Aneroid barometer graduated to show height instead of pressure.

Altitude. Angular distance of a heavenly body above the horizon. Linear distance above sea level or other datum.

Altitude a Double.* Obsolete term for a pair of altitudes taken to determine latitude.

Altitude Azimuth. Usually shortened to 'Alt-azimuth'. Applied to problems, methods, tables and instruments in which these two co-ordinates are inter-dependent.

Altitude Circle. Great circle of celestial sphere that passes through zenith and so cuts horizon at right angles. Also called 'Vertical Circle' or 'Circle of Altitude'.

Altitude of Heavenly Body. Intercepted arc of a vertical circle between horizon and the body. The altitude may be the 'observed', 'apparent' or 'true' according to the horizon from

which it is measured, and the point at which the angle is situated.

Alto. Prefixed to name of cloud form, denotes that it is at high level.

Altocumulus. Cloud form consisting of flattened globular, small clouds in regular layers. Altocumulus Castellatus. Altocumulus cloud form with top edge shaped somewhat like battlements.

Altostratus. Gauzelike cloud form, at high altitude, resembling mist or fog. Density varies, sometimes stars can be seen through it, at other times it may hide Moon or even Sun.

Alwaid. Star β Draconis.

Always Afloat. Charter party stipulation that a ship shall not be required to load, discharge or wait turn at a berth where she would take the ground at some state of the tide.

Amain.* Quickly and suddenly.

Amalfian Code. 'Amalphitan Code.'

Amalgam. Compound of mercury with another metal.

Amalgamated Trough. Metal trough into which mercury is put to form an artificial horizon. Inside of trough is amalgamated to prevent metallic action by the mercury.

Amalphitan Code. Collection of navigation laws codified at Amalfi in 11th century. Was generally accepted as authoritative for many years.

Amazon Current. Outflow of river Amazon, which is manifest for a very considerable distance north and east of river mouth.

Ambergris. Valuable and sweet-smelling substance ejected by the cachalot whale. May be found floating on sea in tropical latitudes.

'America.' Schooner yacht that won 'America's Cup', 22nd August, 1851, in race round Isle of Wight. Length 94 ft., tonnage 171. Built by G. & J. R. Speers, New York.

American Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1936. Legislation that affects all contracts of carriage by sea to or from ports in U.S.A.

American Grommet. Brass eyelet that is clinched into a sail, awning or other canvas article.

American Practical Navigator. Book on navigational methods, together with appropriate tables. Written by Nathaniel Bowditch, LL.D., in 1802. Has been revised and brought up to date frequently.

American Whipping. Similar to a common whipping except that the two ends of twine are brought out in middle of whipping and are finished off with a reef knot.

America's Cup. International yacht racing trophy. Given by Royal Yacht Squadron and won by yacht 'America' in 1851. Held by U.S.A. since then. Now held by New York Yacht Club as a challenge cup.

Amidships. Middle part of a ship, or a middle line in her— either fore and aft or athwartships.

'Amidships.' Order to helmsman to move wheel or tiller so that rudder is in ship's fore and aft line, and has no turning effect.

Ammiral.* 'Admiral.'

Amok. Homicidal frenzy that sometimes affects Malayans and other eastern peoples.

Ampere. Unit of electrical current. Amount passed by one volt through a resistance of one ohm. When passed through standard solution of silver nitrate deposits 0.001118 grame of silver per second.

Ampere's Rule. Expresses deflection of a magnetic needle when in field of an electrical current. Current flowing south to north above a magnetic needle will deflect red end westward; and eastward if flowing below needle.

Amphibia. Animals capable of living both under water and on land.

Amphidromic Point. Point at which cotidal lines meet, and at which there is no range of tide.

Amphidromic Region. Area around an amphidromic point, and in which there is no range of tide.

Amphidromic System. One in which cotidal lines meet at a point.

Amphitrite. In Greek mythology, was wife of Poseidon (Neptune).

Amplitude. The extent of any oscillation, swing or excursion.

Amplitude of Heavenly Body. Value of intercepted arc of horizon between the prime vertical and the vertical circle passing through the body when rising or setting. Measured, in degrees, from east or west point of horizon, and towards the nearer pole.

Amplitude of Tide. Distance between mean tide level and high or low water level of a tide or constituent tide.

Amuck. 'Amok.'

Anabatic Winds. Those winds that have an upward trend, such as daytime winds that pass upward from valleys.

Analysis. Separation into component elements, or into pre­determined groups or categories.

Anchor. Implement by which a ship becomes attached to the ground at sea bed, and so rendered stationary. Parts are: shank, arms, flukes, bill (or pea), stock, ring. They fall into three main groups: Admiralty Pattern, Close Stowing, Stockless. The Admiralty Pattern has a stock at right-angles to the arms which causes the anchor to lie so that one of the flukes will bite into the ground. The Close-stowing anchor has a stock in line with the arms, in the Danforth anchor the stock is attached at the same end of the stock as the arms. The Close-stowing and Stockless anchors have tripping palms which cause the flukes to bite into the ground. The Plough, or C.Q.R. anchor, has flukes shaped like a plough-share. Ship's equipment of anchors is laid down by law and is based, primarily, upon her length. The 'Anchors and Chain Cables Act' demands that exhaustive tests be made on ships' anchors. The 'Merchant Shipping Acts' require that every anchor shall be marked, in two places, with name or initials of maker, and shall carry a serial or progressive number.

Anchorage. An area in which the holding ground is good and suitable for ships to anchor. 2. A position in which ships are anchored. 3. The hold of an anchor in the ground. 4. Dues paid, in a port, for use of an anchorage ground.

Anchor Bed. Strongly-built fitting, on either side of forecastle in ships having stocked anchors, on which an anchor is stowed and secured.

Anchor Bell. Bell, in fore part of ship, rung during fog in accord­ance with Rule of 'Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea'. Sometimes used for indicating to bridge the number of shackles of cable that are out.

Anchor Buoy. Small buoy, or block of wood, with its mooring rope made fast to crown of anchor. Used for indicating position of anchor when on the bottom.

Anchor Clinch. Alternative name for 'Inside Clinch'. Was often used when bending hemp cable to ring of anchor.

Anchor Flags. Small red, green and numeral flags used when anchoring or weighing. Red or green flag used on bridge to indicate which anchor is to be let go; numeral flag used forward to indicate to bridge the number of shackles out.

Anchor Ice. Ice, of any form, that is aground in the sea.

Anchor Lights. All round lights shown by vessel at anchor, in accordance with Rule of Collision Regulations.

Anchors and Chain Cables Acts. Statutory regulations concerning making, testing, marking and certifying of anchors, cables and connecting shackles used by seagoing vessels.

Anchor's Aweigh. (Away.) Report that anchor has been hove out of ground and is clear of it.

Anchor Shackle. Used in joining end of cable to anchor ring. Differs from joining shackle in being fitted with forelock for securing a protruding pin. Now obsolescent.

Anchor Stock.* Method of wooden shipbuilding in which butts of timbers were placed at middle of timbers above and below.

Anchor Watch. Officer and a few men of duty watch who remain on deck when ship is at anchor in an open roadstead.

Ancient.* Old name for 'Ensign'. Andrew. Naval seaman's nickname for Royal Navy. See 'Andrew Miller'.

Andrew Miller. Naval nickname for the Royal Navy. Said to be name of a zealous press gang officer.

Andromeda. Constellation situated between R.A. 00h and 02h; Dec. 28° to 42° N. Contains three bright stars, Alpheratz, Mirach, Almak.

Anemogram. Record made by a recording anemometer.

Anemograph. Instrument for recording wind force and, sometimes, direction.

Anemometer. Instrument for measuring wind velocity or pressure.

Anemometry. Science dealing with measurement of wind pressures.

Anemoscope. Instrument for detecting wind and indicating its direction.

Aneroidograph. Aneroid barometer fitted with clockwork and a paper carrying a pen to give a continuous record of barometric pressures. Seamen usually call it a 'barograph', but this term included mercurial recording barometers.

Angle Bar. Rolled steel section of L shape.

Angle Iron. Iron or steel stiffener inserted in an angle.

Angle of Cut. The smaller angle at which a pair of position lines intersect on a chart.

Angle of Dip. See 'Dip'.

Angle of Incidence. Angle, at a point in a surface, between a perpendicular and a light ray coming to that point.

Angle of Position. In great circle sailing, is angle that great circle track makes with meridian at any given point. In celestial triangle, is angle at the heavenly body which is subtended by the colatitude.

Angle of Reflection. Angle, at reflecting surface, between a light ray and its reflected ray; its value is twice the angle of incidence.

Angle of Refraction. Angle that a refracted ray makes with the

line of its original path.

Angle of the Vertical. Difference between the perpendicular at a place and the extended radius of Earth passing through the place. Arises through Earth being an oblate spheroid. It is, therefore, the difference between True and Reduced latitudes of the place. Value is maximum in Lat. 45° (about) and is minimum at Poles.

Angular Diameter. Diameter of an observed object when expressed as the angle it subtends at eye of an observer.

Angular Distance. Distance between two observed points when expressed as angle it subtends at eye of observer.

Angular Momentum. Product of mass, distances from centre and angular velocities of all particles in a rotating body. Also defined as moment of inertia multiplied by angular velocity. Often called 'Moment of moments'.

Angular Velocity. Rate of revolution when expressed as angle passed through in unit time.

Angulated Sails. Triangular sails in which upper cloths are parallel to leech, and lower cloths are parallel to foot. Cloths meet at a girth band that is perpendicular to luff.

Ankaa. Star α Phoenicis. S.H.A. 354°; Dec. S 43°; Mag. 2-4.

Annealing. Process by which metals, and other substances, are heated to an appropriate temperature and then allowed to cool very slowly; so that internal stresses are removed and resiliency and elasticity are restored or induced.

Annual Constituent (of tide). That part of a tidal undulation that varies with Earth's distance from Sun.

Annual Inequality. Variation in a tidal undulation that is more or less seasonal and periodic.

Annual Parallax. Apparent displacement of a heavenly body from its true position when caused by Earth's elliptical movement around Sun. Is negligible in stars.

Annular Eclipse. Moon's occultation of Sun when outside edge of Sun's disc is unocculted although centres of both bodies are in line. Due to Moon's diameter being less than diameter of Sun, through Moon being in or near apogee.

Anomalistic. Irregular: uneven. Applied to motions, intervals and values that are basically uniform but are made irregular through the action of one or more disturbing factors.

Anomalistic Month. Time taken by Moon to go from perigee to perigee. Interval is about 27.55455 days.

Anomalistic Period of Planet. Time taken by a planet to go from perihelion to perihelion. Interval is irregular through movement of perihelion point.

Anschutz Gyro Compass. German type in which three gyros revolve in air. Sensitive element floats in a mercury bath. Damping is effected by oil.

Answer the Helm. A ship is said to do this when she alters her direction in response to movements of tiller and rudder.

Antarctic. Region of Earth's surface south of latitude 66° 33' S. Pertaining to this region. Antarctic Circle. Region enclosed by parallel 66° 33' S. Name is often given to the parallel itself.

Antares. Star α Scorpio. S.H.A. 113°; Dec. S 26°; Mag. 1.2. Diameter is 430 times that of Sun; temperature 3100°A. Name means 'rivalling Mars'—in the redness of its colour. Antecians. People living in same latitude and longitude, but on opposite sides of Equator. They have same length of days, but at opposite times of the year. Antedate. To date a document so that its effect counts as from a date previous to the date of signing.

Ante Meridiem. Between midnight and noon. Before midday (Latin).

Antenna. Arrangement of wires for sending or receiving radio waves.

Antenna Resistance. Sum of all leaks, resistances and abatements, in antenna, that reduce maximum current.

Anthelion. Faintly luminous disc seen in sky opposite Sun. Is due to reflection of Sun by ice particles in atmosphere.

Anticorrosive. Inimical to corrosion. Applied to paints, processes and preparations that are intended to prevent corrosion.

Anticyclone. Area of relatively high barometric pressure, around which wind circulation is clockwise in northern hemisphere, and anticlockwise in southern hemisphere. Generally associated with fine and settled weather. (Also called a High).

Anticyclonic Regions. Areas in about 30° N and 30° S latitudes; in which anticyclones are fairly prevalent and persistent.

Antifouling. Paints and preparations that attack and kill marine life that tries to attach itself to ship's underwater skin.

Antigropelos.* Waterproof leggings.

Antilogarithm. Natural number that is represented by a logarithm.

Antilunar Tide. Tidal undulation generated on side of Earth opposite to that on which tractive force of Moon is exerted.

Antipleon. Meteorological term for an area in which meteoro­logical factors and conditions are below normal.

Antipodes. That area of Earth diametrically opposite to a given place; thus having the same latitude and longitude as the place, but of opposite names. Sometimes applied to New Zealand and, less correctly to Australia, as approximately fulfilling these con­ditions in regard to Great Britain.

Antiscorbutics. Medicinal substances that prevent or allay scurvy. Statutory antiscorbutics are lime, lemon and orange juices.

Anti-Solar Tide. Tidal undulation generated on side of Earth opposite to that on which tractive force of Sun is exerted.

Anti-Trades. High level winds that flow above and opposite to the trade winds. They are not surface winds, and so do not affect seamen directly: they do concern meteorologists.

Anvil Cloud. Cumulonimbus cloud with wedge-shaped projection of its upper edge. Fairly common in thunderstorms.

Apeak. Said of anchor when cable is taut and vertical. Said of yards when they are cockbilled in contrary directions.

A-Peek. Apeak.

Aphelion. That point, in orbit of planet or comet, that is farthest from Sun.

Aphraktos. Undeckted Grecian ship of classic times.

Aplanatic. In optics, means 'without aberration'. Used when spherical and chromatic aberrations have been eliminated.

Aplanatic Refraction. Refraction that has been corrected for spherical aberrations. Apogean Range. Mean minimum range of an apogean tide; usually about 0-8 of mean tide. Apogean Tide. Tidal undulation occurring about time of Moon being in apogee. Increase in Moon's distance from Earth reduces her gravitational and tractive efforts. Apogee. Point in Moon's orbit that is farthest from Earth.

A-Port. To port; towards to the port side.

Apparel.* Removable fittings of a ship—such as sails, tackling, awnings, etc.—as distinguished from her permanent fittings.

Apparent. When applied to phenomena means 'as it appears to the human eye'; so disregarding aberration, speed of light, and other factors.

Apparent Altitude. Altitude of centre of a heavenly body when measured from sensible horizon.

Apparent Area. Term used in connection with Sun and Moon, whose areas appear to increase or decrease with variations in Earth's distance from them.

Apparent Declination. Declination of a heavenly body, as it appears to an observer, when displaced by the aberration of light.

Apparent Light. Navigational aid that appears to emit a light when it reflects or refracts a light more or less- remote. Erected in a position where a light would be difficult to maintain.

Apparent Midnight. Instant when true Sun transits the inferior meridian of a place.

Apparent Motion. Movement of a heavenly body as seen from Earth. Due to Earth's diurnal rotation, annual revolution, periodic nutation and precession, apparent motions bear little resemblance to the true movements. 2. The movement on a relative radar display of the echo of another ship. It is her motion relative to own ship. ('Relative Movement,' 'Relative Course and Speed').

Apparent Noon. Instant when true Sun is on the meridian at a place.

Apparent Right Ascension. Right ascension of a heavenly body as it appears to an observer when displaced by the aberration of light.

Apparent Solar Day. Interval between successive transits of true Sun across any given meridian.

Apparent Solar Time. Time based on hour angle of true Sun. Differs from Mean Solar Time by the 'Equation of Time'. Rarely used in civil time reckoning, but frequently used in navigation.

Apparent Sun. The visible Sun, as distinguished from the fictitious 'mean' and 'dynamical' suns.

Apparent Time. Apparent solar time.

Apparent Time of Change Tide. Apparent time of high water at a place at full or new Moon.

Apparent Wind. Movement of air past an observer when arising from a true wind and motion of observer. May differ from true wind in direction, force, or both of these, according to observer's motion relative to wind direction.

Appleton Layer. Ionised layer of atmosphere about 150 miles above surface of Earth. Reflects short wave radio.

Apprentice. A minor who has been bound by indentures to serve a shipowner for a specified period—usually three or four years— in return for instruction in the duties of a deck officer, together with food, accommodation, and such money payments as may be agreed. Terms of apprenticeship are governed by Merchant Shipping Acts.

Approaching. Getting nearer. As far as the 'Collision Regulations' are concerned, a vessel under way but stopped, or hove to, or in irons, is considered to be approaching a vessel that is getting nearer.

Appulse.* Arrival of a heavenly body at a given meridian, or at conjunction with Sun or Moon.

Apron. Canvas protection in leadsman's chains. 2. Piece of timber, immediately abaft stem of a boat, that takes hooded ends of planks. 3. Curved piece of wood erected on fore end of keel of a wooden ship. 4. Projecting ledge of timber along bottom of entrance to a dock, against which the dock gates are closed.

Apse. Point, in orbit of a satellite body, at which the body is nearest to or farthest from the body around which it travels. It is perihelion or aphelion in case of a planet, perigee or apogee in case of Moon.

Aqualung. Apparatus consisting of bottles of compressed air, reducing valve, and face-mask which enables a swimmer to breathe under water.

Aquarius. Constellation lying, approximately, between R.A.s 21h and 23h. Has many discernible stars, but all are small: α Aquarii is Mag. 3-2. 2. Eleventh sign of Zodiac, extending from 300° to 330° celestial longitude. Sun is in this sign from January 20 to February 20. Name is Latin for 'Water Bearer'.

Aquila. Constellation lying between R.A.s 19h-20h. Dec. 0°- 10° N. Contains important star Altair, α Aquikæ.

Arbalest.* Olden instrument for measuring star altitudes. Also called 'Jacob's Staff' or 'Cross Staff' (q.v.).

Arbitration. Judging of a matter under dispute by a person, or persons, mutually agreed upon by contending parties, and whose decision the contending parties agree to accept. Rules concerning arbitration are laid down in Arbitration Act, 1889.

Arc. Part of circumference of a circle. Of sextant, is that part on which the graduations are carried.

Arcform. Method of ship construction introduced by Isherwood. Sharp bilge of box form was done away with and replaced by an arc form from keel to deck line. To regain displacement lost through removing angle at bilge, beam in region of water line was increased. This results in a definite reduction of immersed mid­ship girth and, due to easy sweep of bilge, improved water flow to propeller. Sea kindliness and economical consumption follow.

Arched. Hogged.

Archimedean Screw. Name given to screw propeller when first introduced.

Archimedes' Theorem. A body partially or wholly immersed in a fluid suffers an apparent loss of weight equal to weight of fluid displaced.

Arch Type. System of cargo ship construction developed by North-East coast shipbuilders. Outboard sides of holds were curved inward and upward towards hatchways, so that trimming of bulkhead cargoes was reduced.

Arc of Excess. That small portion of graduated arc of a sextant in which graduations from zero read in a direction opposite to that of the main graduations; thus allowing small angles below the horizontal to be measured.

Arc Proper. Arc of sextant graduated from 0° to 120° (about), and excluding the arc of excess.

Arctic. Pertaining to area of Earth's surface enclosed by parallel of latitude 66° 33' N. Arctic Air. Atmospheric air that has come directly from north polar regions and arrives, eventually, as maritime polar air.

Arctic Circle. Parallel of 66° 33' N. Marks limit of Sun's visibility when in maximum southerly declination.

Arctic Current. Ocean current flowing from Davis Strait, along coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland, meeting Gulf Stream in latitude 41° to 42° N. It then turns eastward. From March onwards it brings down icebergs. Also known as 'Labrador Current', 'Davis Current'.

Arctic Sea Smoke. Fog on surface of sea when caused by cold air moving over warm water.

Arctic Zone. Area north of Arctic Circle.

Arctophylax. Old name for constellation Bootes. Name is some­times given to star Arcturus. Is Greek for 'Bear Watcher'.

Arcturus. Star a Bootes. S.H.A. 147°; Dec. N 19°; Mag. 0-2. Diameter is 30 times that of Sun. candlepower is 100 times greater. Distant 41 light years; temperature 4100°A. Name is Greek for 'Bear Warden'.

Ardent. Said of a vessel under sail when she tends to run up quickly into the wind, and requires an unusual amount of weather helm.

Argentum. Skin layer of fishes. It makes them iridescent by reflecting light.

Argo. Southern constellation in about R.A. 6h to llh; Dec. 37°-70° S. Named after mythological ship of Jason. Divided, by Herschel, into various parts: keel (carina), mast (malus), poop (puppis), sails (vela); stars being named by astronomers—but not seaman—after their part of ship. Canopus is principal star. g Argus (Carinae) is a variable star, going from Mag. 1 to 7 ½ in 70 years.

Argon. Gas forming nearly 1 per cent of atmosphere.

Argonauts. Legendary companions of Jason, in ship 'Argo', when he sailed to regain the Golden Fleece. 2. Sea creature, with tentacles and a shell, often seen floating on surface of sea.

Argosy. Large Adriatic merchant ship of middle ages. Word is used, poetically, for freight-carrying ships in general. Is a corrupt form of Ragusa, the principal port from which the argosy sailed.

Argument. When using navigational, or other tables, is the known value, or values, with which the tables are entered.

Aries (The Ram). Constellation situated between R.A.s 01 h 45m and 03h and Dec. 15° to 25° N. Has two navigational stars a (Hamel) and £&

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