c. 'Mainly cloudy, (not less than three-quarters covered)'. (Beaufort Weather Notation). Cab. Name given to screened shelter at wing of a navigating bridge. Caban.* Cabane.* Old spelling of 'Cabin'. Cabin

C - English Maritime terminology

c. 'Mainly cloudy, (not less than three-quarters covered)'.

(Beaufort Weather Notation).

Cab. Name given to screened shelter at wing of a navigating bridge.

Caban.* Cabane.* Old spelling of 'Cabin'.

Cabin. Small compartment in a ship set apart for use of an officer, passenger or other person.

Cabin Boy. Junior rating whose duty is to attend on officers of a ship. Title is obsolescent. At one time he was a protege in the retinue of an admiral; as such he was the forerunner of the midshipman.

Cabin Passenger. Person who has paid at least £25 for his passage (or £3 25p for every 1000 miles), has at least 36 clear square feet of space for his exclusive use and has a signed contract ticket.

Cable. Nautical unit of distance, having a standard value of 1/l0th of a nautical mile (608 ft.). For practical purposes a value of 200 yards is commonly used. 2. Rope of more than 10 inches in circumference and made of three right-handed ropes laid up left handed. These were used for attachment to anchor before chain cable was manufactured, and were up to 36 inches, or more, in circumference. 3. Wrought iron chain used for attach­ment of ship to her anchor. Made in lengths of 12 ½ fathoms (R.N.) or 15 fathoms in Merchant Navy: these lengths are called 'shackles'. 4. Wire carrying an electric current. 5. Telegraphic message from overseas.

Cable Bends.* Two small ropes used for lashing end of hemp cable to its own part after it had been bent to anchor ring.

Cable Certificate. Signed document stating strength of cable supplied to a ship.

Cable Clench. Strong steel forging fitted at bottom of cable locker for securing inboard end of cable. Is securely attached to ship's structure, vertically below navel pipe, and is tested to 20 per cent above proof strength of cable.

Cable Flags. Small numeral flags that may be used forward, when working cable, to indicate to bridge the number of shackles of cable that are out.

Cable Holder. Horizontal drum having sprockets to take link of cable. Is frictionally connected to spindle geared to capstan engine. Each cable has its own holder, thus allowing for independent veering or heaving.

Cable Hook. 'Chain Hook.' 'Devil's Claw.'

Cable Jack. Long steel lever fitted with a fulcrum. Used for slightly-lifting cable when a slip has to be passed under it.

Cable Laid. Said of ropes made by laying up three ropes so that they make one large rope.

Cable Locker. Compartment in which cable is stowed and the inboard end secured.

Cable Nipper. Short length of small rope, sennit or selvagee that was used for temporarily lashing a messenger to a cable when heaving in. Alternatively, an iron nipper, consisting of two shaped bars, hinged at one end, were used with chain cables and a chain messenger.

Cable Party. Part of a watch, or specially selected men, detailed to work cable.

Cable Shackle. Special shackle used for joining lengths of cable. Pin is flush with sides of shackle and is secured by a metal or wood pin passing through lug and pin.

Cable Ships. Vessels specially fitted for laying and repairing sub­marine telegraph cables. They have a large vertical sheave at stem head.

Cable Stopper.* Short length of very strong rope, securely attached to deck, with stopper knot at outboard end. Cable was lashed to it while inboard part was passed around the riding bitts.

Cablet.* Hemp cable not exceeding 10 inches in circumference. Like cables, it was 101 fathoms in length.

Cable Tier.* Special platform built right forward, between decks and used for flaking rope cable clear for running out.

Cable Tire.* The coils of a rope cable.

Caboose. Old name for cook's galley. At one time was applied to the funnel casing. Now applied to any small enclosed space.

Caburns.* Small spunyarn line used for serving rope cables to prevent chafe. Also used for seizings.

Cachalot. Sperm whale. Length up to 70 feet. Lives in 'schools'; one school of females, or cows, and another of immature bulls.

Cage Mast. Lattice mast of steel tubes formed into a criss-cross spiral, held at intervals by horizontal rings. Fitted to U.S. battle­ships of early twentieth century.

Cagework.* Name once given to the uppermost decorative work on the hull of a ship.

Caique. Light craft of Bosphorus, propelled by oars or sail. Else where in the Mediterranean a two-masted cargo-carrying vessel.

Caisson. Steel floating structure that can be flooded and sunk to close entrance to a dry dock. In engineering, is a watertight casing in which men can work under water.

Caisson Disease. Diver's palsy, or bends. Paralysis caused by the formation of air bubbles in blood of a diver coming to surface too quickly after working at considerable depth, or under unusual air pressure. If bubble reaches the heart, the man dies at once: if it forms on brain or spinal cord there is paralysis of legs.

Calcareous. Word used to denote quality of bottom when of lime­stone. Fragments of shell, coral and minute skeletons may often be seen.

Calcium Light. Cylinder containing phosphide of calcium, which ignites when in contact with water. Is attached to a life buoy so that its position can be known when put overboard in the dark.

Calendar. Presentation of civil time in days, weeks, months and years.

Calendar Line. Alternative name for 'Date Line'.

Calendar Month. Interval between any given date and 00 hrs. of the same date in the following month.

Calibration. Determination of error, if any, between the value indicated by an instrument and the actual value that it should indicate.

California Current. Name used in U.S.A. for 'Mexico Current.'

Caliper. Pair of bowed legs, working on a common pivot, used for measuring internal or external diameters of circular items. Size of chain cable is measured with it.

Calk.* Old astrological word for the calculating of a horoscope. 2. Old spelling of 'Caulk'.

Call. Small whistle, of a special type, used by boatswains' mates - occasionally by a commissioned boatswain - in Royal Navy when passing orders or piping the side. Call Boy. Junior rating in Royal Navy whose duty is to repeat all orders piped by boatswain's mate.

Callipers. Calipers.

Callippic Cycle. Period of 27,759 days, or 940 lunations, being approximately 76 years. New and full Moons occur on same day and date -within about 6 hours. Calculated by Callippus (Greek), about 350 B.C., as an improvement on Metonic Cycle.

Call Sign. Group of Morse signs allotted to a ship, or shore station, for identification purposes.

Calm. Absence of wind. No agitation of sea surface.

Calorie. Amount of heat necessary to raise temperature of one gramme of pure water through one degree Centigrade.

Calorific Value. Number of heat units obtained by complete combustion of unit amount of fuel. Generally expressed as number of British Thermal Units (B.T.U.) per Ib. of fuel.

Calorimeter. Apparatus for determining specific heat of a substance by finding how much heat is lost or gained when its temperature is changed in standardized circumstances.

Calving. Breaking away of a mass of ice from a glacier or iceberg. Cam. Projection on wheel or curved plate when shaped to give an alternating or eccentric movement to another member that is in contact.

Camber. Arched form of a deck or beam to shed the water. Standard camber for weather decks is l/50th of vessel's breadth. 2. Recess, in masonry of a dock entrance, for a sliding caisson to enter when entrance is opened. 3. Small tidal dock, originally for discharge of timber, now used for loading or discharging and for embarkation and disembarkation from small boats.

Camber Keel. Keel so shaped that its depth increases as it approaches the forward and after ends.

Camel. Hollow vessel of iron, steel or wood, that is filled with water and sunk under a vessel. When water is pumped out the buoyancy of camel lifts ship. Usually employed in pairs. Very valuable aid to salvage operations. At one time were usual means of lifting a vessel over a bar or sandbank. Were used in Rotterdam in 1690.

Cam Shaft. Shaft carrying a cam.

Cain Wheel. Wheel eccentrically mounted to transmit an alter­nating movement.

Canadian Water Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1910. Relates to carriage of goods by sea from Canadian ports to places outside Canada.

Canal. An artificial waterway used for the passage of ships or boats.

Canals of Mars. Name given to lines of dark sports on surface of Mars. Suggestions has been made that they are irrigation canals. but this is not now accepted.

Can Buoy. Buoy with flat top above water. Said to be corruption of 'cone buoy'. Often conical under water, with mooring chain attached to apex of cone.

Cancelling Clause. Inserted in a charter party, or other document. to entitle one party to withdraw from the contract if specified conditions are not observed.

Cancelling Date. In a charter party, is latest date at which a chartered ship must be ready to commence to fulfil terms of the charter.

Cancer. Latin for 'crab'. Constellation situated about R.A. 9h and Dec, 10°—13°N. Has no star brighter than Mag. 4. 2. Fourth sign of Zodiac, extending from 90° to 120° celestial longitude. Sun is in this sign from June 21 to July 22 (abt.).

Candela. International unit of luminous intensity since 1948. 1 candela =0.98 candles.

Cane Fender. Large bundles of canes bound together and used to pro­tect ship's side from chafing when alongside wharf, quay or another vessel. Hazel rod fenders are frequently called by this name.

Canes Venateci. 'Hunting dogs.' Constellation between Bootes and Ursa Major. Brightest star is Cor Caroli, Mag. 3.

Can Hooks. Two flat hooks running freely on a wire or chain sling. Hooks are put under chime of casks, weight is taken on chain sling or wire. Weight of lift prevents unhooking.

Canicula. Latin for 'Dog Star'. Alternative name for Sirius. Name is sometimes given to constellation 'Canis Major'.

Canis Major. Latin for 'Greater Dog'. Constellation S.E. of Orion. Brightest star is Sirius Mag. -1-6.

Canis Minor. Latin for 'Lesser Dog'. Constellation E. of Orion. Brightest star is Procyon, Mag. 0-5.

Canoe. Narrow-beamed craft propelled by paddles. Vary widely in construction from primitive dug-out to the Eskimo kayak and oomiak.

Canera.* Type of ship formerly used in Black Sea.

Canoe Rig. The sail arrangement of a canoe. There is no fixed type, but sails are arranged to keep centre of effort as low as possible. To avoid moving about in these tender craft much ingenuity is needed in arrangements for trimming, reefing and furling sail.

Canopus. Star a Argus. S.H.A. 264°; Dec. 53° S; Mag. —0-9. Diameter is 180 times that of Sun; candlepower is 180 times greater; distant 650 light years. Named after Egyptian god of water, or the city of same name.

Canopy. Canvas cover on metal frames. Placed over a hatch or companion way, and in other places. Cant. Corner or angle. One of segments forming a side piece in head of cask. 2. To tilt in the vertical plane, or to incline in horizontal plane. 3. Cut made between neck and fins of whale so that a hook can be attached for canting. 4. To roll-over a whale when flensing.

Cant Blocks. Purchase blocks used when canting whales.

Cant Falls. Purchases used to sling a whale alongside.

Cant Frames. Short frames that support the overhanging counter of a vessel with an elliptical stern.

Cant Hook. Lever with hook in lifting end. Used for lifting heavy weights.

Cantick Quoin. Triangular piece of wood used to prevent rolling of a cask.

Cantilever Beam. Girder with one end unsupported, and depending on its girder strength to bear stresses on unsupported end.

Cantline. Groove between strands of a rope. 2. Groove between casks or bags when stowed in rows.

Canton. Square division of a flag at its corner or corners.

Cant Piece. 'Cant timber.' Also, piece of timber put along edge or a side fish to strengthen it.

Cant Purchase. Flensing purchase extending from mainmast head to a cut in a whale.

Cant Ribbon. That part of a gilded or painted moulding, along a ship's side, that sweeps upward towards stem or stern.

Cant Spar. Pole or hand mast that is suitable for making a small mast or spar.

Cant Timber Abaft. Projection of after cant timber, which formed a chock on which spanker boom rested when not in use.

Cant Timbers. Timbers, at extreme ends of a vessel, that are not perpendicular to keel; those forward leaning slightly aft, those aft leaning slightly forward.

Canvas. Material made from flax, jute, cotton or hemp. Supplied in bolts of approximately 40 yards. Usually 24 in. wide, but up to 72 in. in some materials. Graded in numbers from 0 to 7, 0 being the heaviest. Cap. Fitting over the head of a mast, and in which a mast above can be moved or confined.

Capabar (re).* Old name for misappropriation of Government stores.

Capacity Plan. Plan and/or sectional elevation of a vessel showing capacities of all holds, bunkers, tanks, and other relevant com­partments.

Cap a Rope. To cover the end with tarred canvas, or hessian, and then whip it.

Cape. A projection of land into the sea.

Cape Horn Fever. Feigned illness of an incompetent seaman in cold and stormy weather.

Capella. Star a Aurigae. S.H.A. 282°; Dec. N 46C; Mag. 0-2. Diameter is 12 times that of Sun; candlepower is 150 times greater; distant 47 light years; temp- 5500°A. Is a double star, the one seen being Capella A. Name is Latin for 'Little Goat'.

Cape Stiff. Seaman's nickname for 'Cape Horn'.

Capful of Wind. Passing wind of no great strength.

Caph. Star b Cassiopeiae. S.H.A. 359°; Dec. N 59°; Mag. 2.

Cappanus. Sea worm that attacks ship's wooden bottoms and attaches itself to them.

Capricornus. (Lat. - Goat) Constellation situated between R.A.s 20 h 15m and 21 h 45 m and Dec. 12°—27° S. Has no star brighter than Mag. 3. Tenth sign of Zodiac extending from 270° to 300° celestial longitude. Sun is in this sign from Dec. 22 to Jan. 21 (about).

Capshore. Small spar supporting overhanging part of mast cap; heel being secured in a shoe on foremost crosstree.

Capsize. To overturn or upset. Said to be derived from words meaning 'to move a barrel by turning it on head and bilge alternatively'.

Capsize (a Coil). To turn over a coil of rope so that working end is on deck.

Capstan. Vertical barrel, working on a vertical spindle that is used for heaving on ropes and chain cable. May be operated by hand or by steam, electric or hydraulic engine. Top of barrel has square sockets in which capstan bars may be shipped when working by hand. Lower edge of barrel carries pawls which work in a pawl rack on deck, and prevent capstan walking back.

Capstan Bar. Stout wooden bar, often with an iron shoe, fitting into sockets of capstan when working capstan by hand. Outer end may be notched to take a 'Capstan swifter'.

Capstan Bar Pin. Strong pin passing through head of capstan and end of a shipped capstan bar. Prevents capstan bar becom­ing unshipped.

Capstan Swifter. Rope having a cut splice in middle and a thimble in one end. Cut splice is passed over top of notch of capstan bar, swifter is back hitched over end of the other bars and swifter is then set up to its opposite part. This results in bars being firmly secured with an upward cant.

Captain. Rank in R.N. between Commander and Commodore. In Merchant Navy is a courtesy title for a master mariner in command of a ship. R.N. has a custom of calling certain petty officers, who are in charge of certain parts of the ship, 'captain' of that part of ship. There are 'captains of the hold', 'the forecastle', etc.

Captain of Top. Petty officer who is responsible to Commander for upkeep of a certain part of the ship, and for the hands allotted to that part.

Capture. Forcible taking of a vessel as prize, or reprisal, in time of war.

Caput Draconis. 'Head of the dragon’ Name sometimes given to star a Draconis.

Carack/Carrack. Large 15th -century ship with high bow and stern castles.

Caravel. Spanish and Portuguese sailing vessel of Moorish origin. Was broad beamed with fore and after castles. Usually square rigged forward, lateen rigged on after masts. Both Columbus and Magellan used them. Name was given also to a small herring fishery boat of France.

Carbon Fibre. An immensely strong costly material of high tensile strength.

Cardinal Points. Of compass: North, South, East, West. Named after cardinal points of horizon. 2. Of horizon: points in which horizon is cut by meridian and prime vertical.

3. Of Ecliptic: points in which Ecliptic is cut by secondary circles passing through the equinoctial and solstitial points. These are: First Points of Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn.

Careen. To list a vessel so that a large part of her bottom is above water. Formerly done to remove weed and marine growth, to examine the bottom, to repair it and to put on preservative or anti-fouling. Still done with small craft.

Cargazon.* Old name for 'Bill of Lading'.

Cargo. Goods or merchandise loaded into a ship for carriage.

Cargo Book. Book kept by master of a coasting vessel. Gives full particulars of all cargo carried, name of consignee and name of consignor—if known.

Cargo Battens. Wood battens, portable or fixed, in hold of a cargo vessel to keep cargo away from ship's side and to allow necessary through ventilation.

Cargo Net. Large square net, of wire or rope, used when making up a hoist of small packages for loading or discharging.

Cargo Plan. Diagrammatic outline of a vessel, either vertically or horizontally, in which holds and cargo spaces are exaggerated, and machinery and accommodation spaces are diminished. Used for readily indicating positions of different cargoes, parcels and consignments.

Cargo Port. Watertight door in ship's side. Used for passing cargo inboard and outboard in certain types of ship.

Caribbean Sea. Area between Central American continent and Yucatan Strait, the Greater Antilles and a line, on eastward of Lesser Antilles, that ends at Baja Point, Venezuela.

Carlins (-ings). Fore and aft members that support the ends of beams that have been cut to form a hatchway or other opening. 2. Wooden sections, about 5 in. by 5 in., lying fore and aft below beams and carrying ledges on which decks of wooden ships are laid.

Carmilhan. Phantom ship of the Baltic. Somewhat similar to the 'Flying Dutchman'.

Carney. Seaman's term for hypocrisy. Said to be the name of a notorious master who was bland ashore but a fiend afloat.

Carpenter. Commissioned officer in R.N., petty officer in Merchant Navy, who is responsible for minor repairs and all woodwork in a ship.

Carpenter's Stopper. Portable fitting for holding a wire under stress. Consists of a clamp—secured to any fixture by chains - and a shaped wedge that fits rope. Any surging of rope causes wedge to move further into clamp, and so increase nip.

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1924. Relates to carriage of goods from ports in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Applies only while goods are in carrying vessel. Deck cargoes are outside the Act.

Carrick Bend. Method of joining ends of two ropes by turning the end of one rope over its own part and then passing the end of the other rope through the bight thus formed, over the cross in the first rope and then back through the loop on that side that is opposite to the one on which the first end is lying.

Carrick Bitts. Strong timbers in which a windlass is mounted.

Carrier. Owner or charterer who enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper. 2. Ship carrying cargo. 3. An aircraft carrier.

Carronade. Gun throwing a medium weight shot 600 yards with fairly high velocity. First made at Carron in 1779. Compared with cannon, shorter range but heavier shot.

Carry Away. To break, part or fracture.

Carry On. To continue sailing under the same canvas despite the worsening of the wind.

Cartel Ship. Unarmed ship used for exchanging prisoners of war during hostilities. Also applied to an armed ship carrying emissaries for negotiating terms under a flag of truce.

Cartographer. Person employed in compiling or drawing charts.

Cartography. The drawing or compiling of charts.

Carvel. Short form of 'caravel'.

Carvel Built. System of building wooden craft in which the side planking goes fore and aft, with the longitudinal edges butting and flush.

Carvel Joint. Flush or butting joint.

Carving Note. Form filled in by owner of a ship under construction. States particulars of tonnage, construction, name, port of registry, etc. When signed by surveyor, becomes authority for relevant particulars to be 'carved' in main beam of vessel.

Case. Name given to inner planking of a diagonally-built boat, to differentiate it from the outer planking, or 'skin'.

Casing. Short form of 'Funnel casing'.

Cask. Barrel for containing either solids or liquids.

Cassini's Projection. Used in British ordnance survey maps. Graticule is built in relation to a point in a central meridian.

Cassiopeia. Constellation on opposite side of North Pole to Ursa Major. In Greek mythology, was wife of Cepheus and mother of Andromeda.

Cast. To sheer a vessel in a desired direction. 2. To take a sounding with lead and line.

Cast a Traverse. To reduce, arithmetically, a number of courses steered to a resultant distance and direction made good.

Cast Away. Said of a vessel that has been deliberately wrecked. Said of a man who has been shipwrecked.

Casting. Turning a vessel's head in a desired direction, before weighing anchor or slipping a buoy, by action of propeller, sail, rudder, wind or tide.

Casting Off. Letting go the ropes and hawsers that attach a vessel to a wharf quay, etc. Castor. Star a Geminorum. S.H.A. 247°; Dec. N 32°; Mag. 1-6. When observed by a telescope is seen to consist of three pairs of twin stars.

Castor and Pollox. Name given to two corposants when seen at the same time. Casuarinas. Trees having no leaves but with short, ribbed sheaths. Observable in Indian Archipelago and Australia.

Casualty. Any accident to a ship or man that involves damage or death.

Cat. Purchase or rope by which an anchor is lifted to billboard after weighing. 2. Former sailing vessel having three masts, no beakhead, narrow stern, projecting quarters and high waist.

Carried about 800 tons. (This may have been Dick Whittington's 'cat').

Catabatic. See 'Katabatic'.

Catadioptric Lens. Arrangement of lenses so that a light is both reflected and refracted in a desired direction. Suggested by Alan Stevenson in 1834. Used in many lighthouses. Catamaran. Small craft whose stability is obtained by having a log parallel to its fore and aft line and maintained at proper distance by projections from main craft. Common in Indian Sea and other tropical and sub-tropical waters. 2. A flat wooden float used in docks as fender, and for painting ship's side. 3. A yacht with twin hulls.

Cat Back. Small rope attached to back of hook of cat purchase. Used for placing cat hook into ring, or balancing band, of anchor when anchor is awash.

Cat Block. Lower block of a cat purchase; carries the cat hook.

Cat Boat. Small boat with single gaff sail and mast set right forward.

Catch.* Old form of 'Ketch'.

Catch a Crab. To put blade of oar in water so that it is inclined from horizontal, and forward edge is lower than after edge. Way of boat causes blade to be pushed downward and aft, thus jamming it in rowlock.

Catch a Turn. Take a temporary turn with a rope.

Catching up Rope. Light rope secured to a buoy to hold vessel while stronger moorings are attached.

Catch Ratline. Ratline of greater strength than the majority. Was placed at regular intervals, usually every fifth ratline.

Cat Davit. Strong davit for lifting anchor from water line to bill­board when weighing anchor.

Catenary. Originally, length of chain put in middle of a tow rope to damp sudden stresses. Now applied to any weight put in a hawser for same purpose. 2. Curve formed by a chain hanging from two fixed points. Cat Fall. Rope rove in a cat purchase.

Cat Harp- (ings)-(ins)-(ens). Ropes bent to foremast shroud of futtock rigging to bowse it aft when sailing close hauled. 2. Name given to iron leg confining upper ends of/standing rigging to mast. Ropes bowsing in the lower ends of the port futtock shrouds to the lower ends of the starboard futtock shrouds.

Catharpin Swifter. Foremost shroud of futtock rigging.

Cat Heads. Strong timbers projecting from either side of bows of olden ships. Fitted with sheaves for reeving cat purchase. Cathead Stopper. Chain or rope that holds ring of anchor when stowed on billboard.

Cathode Ray Tube. A type of electronic valve with a screen which glows brightly where it is struck by a stream of electrons released when an echo is received. This type, used in a radar set, is known as a Plan Position Indicator. Cat Holes.* Two small holes, for mooring ropes, in sterns of olden ships.

Cat Hook. Strong hook in end of cat pendant for lifting anchor to billboard when catting.

Catoptric. Name given to lights intensified by means of mirrors. Cat Pendant. Wire rope rove through block on cat davit to lift anchor when catting it.

Cat Purchase. Tackle by which anchor is lifted from water level and placed on billboard. Cat Rig. Modern version: schooner or ketch rig with no head sails, with unstayed masts, wish-bone booms and wrap-round sails.

Cat Rope. 'Cat Back.'

Cat's Eye. 'Cat Hole.'

Catspaw. Manipulation of a bight of rope so that two small loops are made for taking hook of a tackle. 2. Ripple made on calm water by a passing light air.

Cat's Skin. Light, warm wind on surface of sea.

Cat Tackle. 'Cat Purchase.'

Catting. Lifting the flukes of a weighed anchor on to billboard or anchor bed. Hoisting the anchor from the water to the cathead.

Catting Link. Special link, with broad palm, used in catting anchor.

Catting Shackle, Special screw shackle used when catting anchor.

Cattle Door. Large door in vicinity of bridge or tween deck super­structure. Used when loading or discharging cattle on the hoof.

Cattlemen. Men carried to attend cattle when carried on the hoof.

Catug. A catamaran tug locked onto the stern of a barge, the centrebody of the tug riding on the stern of the barge.

Catwalk. A narrow and unfenced gangway.

Caulk. To make a joint watertight. 2. To press oakum, or other fibre, in a seam between planking preparatory to 'paying'. 3. To expand the overlapping edge of a riveted iron or steel plate so that it prevents water seeping through the joint.

Caulker. One who caulks seams.

Caulking Iron. Tool used for pressing down caulking in a seam preparatory to paying.

Caulking Mallet. Wooden mallet used for applying force to caulk­ing iron.

Causa Proxima. Latin for 'Proximate Cause'.

Ceiling. Wooden covering over tank tops in bottom of a hold. Formerly, was that portion of a ship's side inboard and between deck beams and limber strake. This meaning is still retained in 'spar ceiling'.

Celestial. Pertaining to the sky, or celestial concave.

Celestial Concave. The heavens. The celestial sphere.

Celestial Equator. Great circle of celestial sphere that is 90° from celestial poles. Is plane of Earth's equator carried to celestial concave. Usually called the Equinoctial.

Celestial Horizon. 'Rational horizon.'

Celestial Latitude. Angular distance above or below plane of Ecliptic. Measured on a circle of celestial longitude and prefixed with plus sign if north of Ecliptic, minus sign if south of it. Not usually considered in navigation.

Celestial Longitude. Angular distance along Ecliptic from First Point of Aries, measured in direction of Sun's apparent path and expressed in arc 0° to 360°. Not usually considered in navigation.

Celestial Meridian. Great circle of celestial sphere that is a secondary circle to Equinoctial. Declination is measured on it.

Celestial Poles. Those points in celestial concave that are in the zenith at north and south poles of Earth.

Celestial Sphere. General name for the heavens, or sky. Heavenly bodies are assumed to be on the interior surface of a hollow sphere. Name is sometimes given to a globe showing places of stars on its outer surface. It is preferable to call this a 'star globe'.

Cellular System. Ship construction in which double bottom is divided into small spaces by erection of intercostal longitudinals between floors.

Celox. Fast, single-banked vessel of Rhodes in classic times.

Celonavigation. Name suggested by Harbord (Glossary of Naviga­tion) to denote navigational workings requiring observations of celestial bodies. Astro-navigation.

Celsius. (Centigrade) Graduation of thermometer scale in which the freezing temperature is 0°C and boiling point 100°C.

Cement. Calcined chalk and clay in powder form. Mixed with water and an aggregate (sand, etc.). Is alkaline, so neutralising acids. Used in ships as protection against abrasion, corrosion, percussion, to give additional strength and for stopping leaks.

Cement Box. Portland cement and aggregate inserted between wooden shuttering and a leaking plate, or seam, to stop the leak.

Centaur(us). Bright constellation in southern sky. Indicated by a line drawn through Arcturus and Spica. Has two navigational stars, a and b. Approx. R.A. 14 h; Dec. 60°S.

Centering Error. Sextant error due to centre of pivot not being at exact centre of arc. Error varies with altitude.

Centigrade Scale. Graduation of thermometer in which freezing point of water is 0° and boiling point is 100°. Is a modification of Celsius scale, and was introduced by Christin, of Lyons, in 1743.

Central Eclipse. Eclipse in which centres of the two heavenly bodies are exactly in line to an observer at a specified place.

Central Latitude. Angle at centre of Earth between plane of Equator and a line projected through observer. As Earth is not a true sphere this angle will differ from angle formed by down­ward projection of observer's vertical—which is the 'normal' latitude.

Central Projection (of sphere). Projection of surface of sphere to a tangent plane by lines from centre of sphere.

Central Sun. Point in the heavens about which the universe may be considered to turn. At one time was considered to be in constellation of Taurus.

Centre Board. Name often given to a 'drop keel'.

Centre-Castle. The raised part of a ship's hull amidships.

Centre of Buoyancy. That point in a floating body, at which the total moments of buoyancy in any one direction are balanced by equivalent moments of buoyancy in the opposite direction.

Centre of Cavity. 'Centre of displacement.'

Centre of Displacement That point, in a floating body, which is the geometrical centre of the immersed portion.

Centre of Effort. That point, in a sail, at which all wind force may be assumed to act. Theoretically, it would be the geometrical centre of sail area. In practice, it will be somewhat away from the theoretical point, due to sail not presenting a perfectly flat surface to wind, and not being at a uniform angle to wind in all parts.

Centre of Flotation. Geometrical centre of immersed volume of a floating body.

Centre of Gravity. That point, in any body, at which the moments of gravitational force in any one direction are balanced by the moments of gravitational force in the opposite direction.

Centre of Gyration. That distance along a radius of a revolving body at which the mass may be considered to act. With disc of uniform density and thickness the centre of gyration is 0-707 of radius from centre of rotation.

Centre of Immersion. 'Centre of displacement'.

Centre of Lateral Resistance. Point, in lee side of underwater body of a vessel, at which the forces resisting leeway are equal in any two opposite directions in the fore and aft line.

Centre of Oscillation. That point, in a pendulum, at which total of moments of forces on upper side are equal to moments on lower side.

Centre of Percussion. That point, in a striking mass, at which the whole force of the blow would cause no jar. In case of a bar of uniform density, revolving around one end, would be 2/3rds distant from centre of revolution.

Centre through Plate. Continuous girder going fore and aft along centre of bottom of a steel ship. Floors are attached to it on opposite sides.

Centrifugal Pump. Pump in which liquid is withdrawn by giving it a high rotational speed and allowing it to escape tangentially. Suction is provided by a partial vacuum caused by escaping liquid.

Cepheids. Short period variable stars whose magnitudes vary in the course of a few days. Rigel, Canopus, Antares are examples.

Cepheid Variables. 'Cepheids.' Particularly notable in constella­tion Cepheus.

Cepheus. Northern constellation situated between Cassiopeia and Andromeda. In Greek mythology, Cepheus was father of Andromeda and husband of Cassiopeia.

Ceres. First of the asteroids to be discovered.

Certificated Cook. Ship's cook who holds a certificate granted by D.T.I, or an approved cookery school. Ships of 1000 tons gross and upward must carry a certificated cook. Certificated Lifeboatman. Seaman, who has passed through a course in work connected with ship's lifeboats, and has received a certificate of efficiency.

Certificated Officer. Officer holding a Certificate of Competency issued by the Department of Trade and Industry.

Certificate of Clearance. Issued to master of emigrant ship, by emigration officer, when the latter is satisfied that ship is sea worthy, in safe trim, fit for intended voyage, that steerage passengers and crew are fit in health, that master's bond has been fully executed.

Certificate of Competency. Certificate issued by D.T.I, to a seaman or officer who has passed an examination in a specified grade, and has been found fit to perform the duties of the grade.

Certificate of Freeboard. International certificate, issued by an 'Assigning Authority', detailing minimum permissible freeboards in stated areas at specified seasons. Often called 'Load Line Certificate'.

Certificate of Grain. 'Grain Certificate.'

Certificate of Pratique. Certificate issued by medical officer of port to an arrived ship when he is satisfied that health of crew is satisfactory. Prerequisite to 'Entry Inwards'. Certificate of Registry. A vessel's identity certificate. Issued by the Government of a country, through assigning authorities, after vessel has been surveyed. Gives relevant particulars, rig, dimensions, tonnage, machinery, etc., and name/s of owner/s. Master's name is endorsed on it at each change of appointment.

Certificate of Seaworthiness. Certificate granted by a surveyor, or Court of Survey, when the seaworthiness of the vessel may be open to question, and after she had been examined and found seaworthy.

Cetacea. Members of whale family, including dolphins and por­poises. They have warm blood and suckle their young. Some have vestiges of legs.

Cetology. The study of cetacea.

Cetus. (Lat.=Whale.) Largest constellation in sky. Situated S of Aries. Has 97 discernible stars, two being of 2nd mag., eight of 3 rd mag. and nine of 4th mag.

Chain. Name often given to chain cable.

Chafe. To wear away through friction.

Chaffer. Said of a jib sail when it shivers in the wind.

Chafing Board. Piece of wood used to protect against chafing.

Chafing Cheeks. Wooden blocks without sheaves sometimes used in running rigging of lightly rigged, small sailing craft.

Chafing Gear. Paunch matting, sennit, strands, battens, etc., put on mast yard, standing rigging, etc., to protect against damage from chafe.

Chafing Mat. Any mat used as chafing gear, but particularly to paunch and thrum mats put on yards to protect them from chafe by backstays.

Chain Boat. Boat used, in harbour, for recovering chain cable and anchors when slipped or parted.

Chain Bolt. Iron bolt used when fastening chain plates and ends of deadeye chains to side of a wooden vessel.

Chain Cable. Anchor cable when made of wrought iron.

Chain Ferry. A ferry which proceeds by hauling itself along a chain laid across a river or channel.

Chain Gantline. Any gantline made of chain, particularly that rove through block at top of funnel.

Chain Hook. Iron hook, with T handle, used when working cable. 2. Strong, two-pronged hook used for temporarily holding cable, inboard end being secured to deck, 'Devil's Claw'.

Chain Knot. Succession of loops in rope, each loop being passed through previous loop.

Chain Lifter.* Former name for sprocket ring of capstan.

Chain Locker. Cable locker.

Chain Pipe. Strengthened hole in cable deck, and through which cable passes to locker.

Chain Plait. 'Drummer's Plait.'

Chain Plates. Plates on ship's side to take lower ends of links o bars passing upwards to the chains. These plates take stress off shrouds, while chains give spread to the shrouds.

Chains. Projecting ledge on outside of vessel, abaft a mast, to which lower rigging is set up and given increased spread. Name is also given to a platform for taking soundings with hand lead: this was formerly done from the main chains.

Chain Shot. Two cannon-balls joined by a length of chain and fired simultaneously. Used for destroying masts, spars and rigging. Invented by Admiral De Witt, 1666.

Chain Slings. In general, any slings made of chain. Applied to the slings of a yard when made of chain instead of rope.

Chain Splice. Method of splicing rope to link of chain. One strand is unlaid and two strands passed through link; one of these two strands is laid up in space of strand taken out, and is half knotted to that strand. Other strand is tucked as usual.

Chain Stopper. Length of chain, about a fathom, used for holding a wire under stress while the wire is manipulated.

Chain Top.* Additional sling (of chain) put on lower yards of warships before going into action.

Chain Towing. Method used, by ferry craft, to pass between the two terminals by hauling on a chain lying on the bottom and secured at each end.

Chain Well.* Former name for a chain locker.

Chamber of Shipping of U.K. Body formed to promote and protect the interests of British shipowners. Received Royal Charter, 1922.

Change of Moon. Instant when centres of Sun and Moon are on same celestial meridian, and a new lunation commences.

Change of Trim. Alteration in the difference between the forward and after draughts of a floating ship.

Change the Mizzen. To brace the crossjack yard so that the mizzen course is on a tack different from the remaining sails.

Change Tide. Tide occurring at change of Moon, and, therefore, nearly a spring tide.

Channel. Narrow arm of sea between two land areas. 2. Deepest part of a body of water, and through which main current flows. 3. Longitudinal hollow or cavity. 4. Flat projection from side of a ship to give spread to rigging (usually called 'chains'). 5. Standard rolled steel section in form of three sides of a rectangle.

Channel Bar. Rolled steel section having three sides of a rectangle.

Channel Bolt. Long bolt that passes through chains, or channels and side planking of a wooden ship; so clamping the chains to the side.

Channel Money. Advance payment of money due to a seaman 48 hours before being paid off. Is £2, or one-quarter of wages due, whichever is the lesser.

Channel Pilot. Pilot engaged in conducting ships in English Channel, or other specified channel. 2. A book of sailing directions for navigation of the English Channel.

Channel Plates. 'Chain Plates.'

Channel Wale. That strake of side planking, of wooden ship, that carries a chain plate.

Chanty. Nautical song of merchant seamen. Used to co-ordinate effort when hauling on a rope, or heaving at capstan or windlass.

Chapelling. Putting a close-hauled vessel's head through the wind without bracing head yards. May be deliberate, or through negligence of helmsman. Word is sometimes applied to wearing in same circumstances, but this is a later application of the word.

Characteristic. Of a logarithm, is the whole number of the Log, as distinguished from its mantissa. 2. Of a navigational light, is its colour, phase and period.

Charges Clause. Inserted in Charter Party to denote who shall pay harbour and dock dues, wharfage, pilotage, towage, etc.

Charles's Law. States that volume of a gas, at constant pressure and at temperature 0°C increases by 1/273rd for each degree rise in temperature.

Charles's Wain. 'Churl's wain,' or 'waggon'. Old name for 'Ursa Major'.

Charley Moore. The embodiment of fair dealing. (R.N.)

Charley Noble. R.N. nickname for a galley funnel.

Chart. Representation of part of ocean or sea for use in navigation. Gives depth of water, nature of bottom, configuration and characteristics of coast, with positions and brief particulars of navigational aids. 2. Diagram showing certain facts in graphical or tabular form. 3.* Old name for mariner's compass.

Chart Abbreviations. Standardised abbreviations used in charts. The more important are generally shown under chart title, but all those used in British Admiralty charts are given on a special chart.

Chart Border. Graduated lines, at border of chart, for determining latitude and longitude of a position, and for measuring distances.

Chart Compass. Compass rose engraved on chart, to determine courses and bearings. Usually has an outer graduation 0°-360°, and inner graduation in quadrantal form. Inner compass gives variation, for a given epoch, and the secular change.

Chart Datum. Sea level used in connection with soundings on a chart. In British charts, is a level below which the tide very rarely falls.

Chart Distortion. Differentiated into distortion in and distortion of charts. Distortion in a chart is an unavoidable extension of charted area due to impossibility of accurately reproducing a spherical surface on a plane surface. It is adjusted by extending the units of measurement, latitude or longitude, to correspond with the extension of the area. Distortion of a chart is a possible stretching or contraction that may occur after printing, and so cause a slight relative displacement of a charted positions. In modern charts this distortion is rarely enough to affect naviga­tion, but if the chart be large it may affect very precise surveying.

Charterer. One who enters into a contract with a shipowner for the hire of a vessel, or for the carriage of goods by sea.

Charter Party. Document by which a shipowner leases his ship to some person or persons, or by which he agrees to carry goods or perform other services. It states the conditions, terms and exceptions that are to prevail in the contract.

Chart Plate. Plate, usually of zinc or copper, on which a chart is engraved for printing. The exact size of this plate is given, in inches, in border of chart. This allows for checking the chart for distortion.

Charybdis. Name of one of the whirlpools, or garofali, in Straits of Messina.

Chasse Marees. Bluff-bowed French luggers formerly used for fishing, and in short voyage trades. Had up to three masts and often carried topsails.

Chatham Chest. Fund for support of disabled and superannuated seamen of R.N. Founded in reign of Queen Elizabeth, on a voluntary basis which, later, became compulsory. Abolished during reign of William IV.

Chebacco Boat.* Sailing craft formerly used in Newfoundland fisheries. Had high, narrow stern. Named after a small river in Massachusetts.

Check. To ease a rope a little, and then belay it.

Checking. Slacking a rope smartly, carefully and in small amounts.

Check Stopper. Length of small chain with one end made fast to a ring bolt, or other annular opening, then around a wire and back through the ring bolt. By hauling on free end of chain the speed of a moving wire can be checked and regulated.

Cheek Block. Sheave on side of a spar, etc., and having a half shell on outer side.

Cheeks. Brackets below head of mast and at sides of it. Support crosstrees and mast above. 2. Knee pieces either side of stem. 3. Sides of a wooden (pulley) block. 4. Old name for a Royal Marine.

'Cheerily.' Injunction to perform an action smartly and with a will.

Cheese Cutter. Form of drop keel for small craft. Has a projecting upper part that is supported in housing when keel is down. 2. A peak cap.

Cheesing down. Coiling a rope ornamentally with each flake flat, or almost flat, on deck; usually in a circular or figure-of-eight pattern.

Chequered. Said of a flag or pendant made up of small squares of two different colours; and of a buoy or beacon painted in squares of two different colours.

Chernikeef Log. Submerged log that projects through bottom of ship. Carries an 'impeller' that turns as vessel moves through the water. Directly records distance run and, with electrical attachment, can indicate speed.

Cherub Log. Towed log consisting of a towed rotator, non-kinkable log line and an inboard registering unit. Measures distance directly, and can be used for speeds up to 12 knots.

Chess Tree. Oak block secured to ship's side abaft fore chains. Used for boarding main tack, or as lead for fore sheet.

Chest Rope. Long boat rope led from forward to a gangway into ship.

Chetwynd Compass. Liquid type compass for use in quick-turning craft. Drag of liquid on rim of card was reduced by making card much smaller than containing bowl.

Chevils. Small pieces of timber, inside a ship, to which tacks and sheets can be secured.

Chief Buffer. Nickname for a chief boatswain's mate in R.N. He is senior chief petty officer of upper deck, and so acts as buffer between the hands and the Commander.

Child Fender. Roller fender for wharf or quay. Consists of a central shaft, free to rotate, around which are large diameter rubber tyres filled with cork.

Chiliad. 18th -century name for logarithmic tables. Means '1000'.

Chime. Projection of staves beyond head of a cask, barrel, etc.

Chime Hoop. Hoop that protects chime of a cask, barrel, etc.

Chimes. Intersection of the lines forming sides and bottom of a flat-bottomed boat. 'Chine.'

Chinckle. Small bight in a rope or line. Often called 'half crown'.

Chine. Former name for chime of a cask. 2. Gap in landward side of a cliff. 3.* That part of a deck waterway that is left above deck level, so that spirketting may be caulked. 4. 'Chimes.'

Chinese Windlass. Machine, by which purchase is gained by heaving one part of a rope, on a drum, and veering the other part on a drum of smaller diameter—a block being in bight of rope between the two drums. This principle is adopted in the 'differ­ential' block.

Chinse. To fill a seam or crack by inserting oakum.

Chinsing Iron. Steel or wrought iron tool used for inserting oakum in a seam in planking, etc. Has a curved lower edge scored with a groove. Upper extension of handle has a wide, circular, convex head for applying power with a mallet.

Chip Log. Quadrantal piece of flat wood, weighted on curved rim, attached to log line for finding speed of a vessel. Often called 'ship' log, or log 'ship'.

Chippy Chap. Nickname for ship's carpenter, or one of his crew.

Chips. Nickname for a ship's carpenter.

Chocks. Shaped pieces of wood on which various items rest and are secured. Of capstan, are wooden blocks, at top and bottom of drum, that house wooden whelps.

Chock a Block. Said of a purchase when two blocks are close together, and further hauling is impossible. Also called 'Two blocks'.

Choke a Luff. To prevent a tackle walking back by passing a bight of the fall between a sheave and the rope rove through it, and on that side of sheave where rope would go into block if walking back.

Cholera. Infectious disease of Eastern origin. Marked by diarr­hoea, cramp, vomiting and drying of tissues.

Chop Mark. Merchant's mark on goods. Indicates grade and other particulars.

Chops of the Channel. Sea area immediately to westward of English Channel. First known use of this name was in 1748.

Chromatic Aberration. Deviation of light rays after passing through curved lens. Results in coloured fringes around observed objects, caused by unequal refraction of lenses breaking up light into its constituent colours.

Chromosphere. Incandescent gaseous envelope surrounding Sun.

Chronograph. A watch combined with a stop-watch mechanism.

Chronometer. Very accurately constructed timepiece with a balance wheel of a form that precludes error through change of temper­ature. Balance wheel is affected by mainspring for only a very small period of its oscillation. Invented by John Harrison about 1728.

Chronometer Journal. Book for recording comparisons of chrono­meters carried in a ship. Shows their error on time signal, and on each other. Daily rates, also, are deduced and entered.

Chronometer Watch. Small timepiece made on chronometer principle and used for taking times on deck.

Chronometric Difference. Difference of longitude between two places when expressed as the difference of their local mean times.

Chuch. Name sometimes given to a fairlead.

Chutes. Inclined troughs, down which coal, ashes and fluid sub­stances can slide. 2. Vertical canvas tubes used for ventilating. Often spelt 'shoots'.

Circle. Plane figure bounded by a line that, at all points, is equi­distant from a point termed the 'centre'. Can be considered as the section of a sphere by a plane. Word is frequently applied to its circumference, as in 'position circle'.

Circle of Altitude. Great circle of celestial sphere, secondary to horizon, on which altitudes are measured.

Circle of Azimuth. Great circle of celestial sphere passing through zenith; so passing through all points having the same azimuth.

Circle of Curvature. Circle whose curvature is the same as that of a curve under consideration.

Circle of Declination. Great circle of celestial sphere that is per­pendicular to Equinoctial. So called because declination is measured along it. Not to be confused with 'Parallel of Declination'.

Circle of Equal Altitude. Circle, on surface of Earth, passing through all positions at which the body has the same altitude. It is a great circle when body is in horizon, decreasing to a point when body is in the zenith.

Circle of Excursion. Small circle, parallel to Ecliptic, marking the maximum celestial latitude of a planetary body.

Circle of Illumination. Great circle, on surface of Earth, that divides day from night.

Circle of Latitude. Alternative name for a circle of celestial longi­tude. So named because latitude is measured on it.

Circle of Longitude. Great circle of celestial sphere, secondary to Ecliptic, passing through all points having the same celestial longitude.

Circle of Perpetual Apparition. Parallel of declination, above which all the diurnal circles are entirely above horizon.

Circle of Perpetual Occultation. Parallel of declination, below which all the diurnal circles are entirely below horizon.

Circle of Position. Small circle on surface of Earth, and on the circumference of which an observation shows observer to be.

Circle of Right Ascension. Great circle of celestial sphere, passing through all points having the same right ascension.

Circle of Sphere. Formed by intersection of a sphere by a plane. May be 'great circles' or 'small circles', depending on whether the plane does, or does not, pass through centre of sphere.

Circle of Tangency. 'Tangent Circle'.

Circuit. Series of connected conductors that form a path for an electric current.

Circular Note. Letter of credit addressed to financial firms in other countries. Authorises them to make payment to person named.

Circular Parts. 'Napier's Circular Parts’

Circular Sailing.* Former name for 'Great circle sailing'.

Circular Storm.* Former name for a cyclonic storm.

Circulating Pump. Centrifugal, or double-acting pump, that draws water from sea and delivers it at external surfaces of condenser tubes, so condensing exhaust steam from engines.

Circulation. Process by which water in a boiler is moved so that the whole mass is of uniform temperature. Partly done by con­vection, but hastened by pump and special fittings.

Circummeridian. About or near the meridian.

Circumnavigate. To sail completely around. Sometimes especially applied to sailing around Earth.

Circumnavigator's Day. The day 'lost' or 'gained' by the navigator when date is altered on crossing the Date Line on W'ly or E'ly course (respectively).

Circumpolar. Term applied to a heavenly body that makes a diurnal revolution around pole of heavens without passing below horizon.

Cirrocumulus. An intermediate form of cloud often called 'Mackerel sky'. Formed by small, rounded masses of cloud.

Cirrostratus. High, tenuous cloud of uniform density. Often precedes a depression.

Cirrus. Feathery, fibrous, detached clouds, white in colour, that are formed by ice crystals at heights of five to seven miles.

Cirrus Nothus. 'False Cirrus.'

Cistern. The mercury container of a barometer. Pressure of atmosphere in cistern forces mercury up the glass tube that has been exhausted of air.

Civil Day. Period from midnight to midnight in the mean time standard at a given place.

Civil Twilight. Interval between Sun's upper limb being in horizon, and his centre being 6° below it.

Civil Year. The year in common use. Is the Tropical year adapted for civil purposes. Has 365 days for three years and 366 in fourth with slight adjustment at ends of centuries.

Clack Valve. Hinged valve that opens by suction and closes by gravity.

Clamp. Formerly, strong plank supporting deck beams at ship's side. 2. Cleat, on after end of a boom, to take reef pendants. 3. Half round, hinged fitting for securing heads of derrick booms, etc.

Clamp Nails. Strong nails with large, round head. Used for fastening clamps to sides of wooden vessels.

Clap On. To apply extra power, either by increasing purchases used, or by putting on additional men. 2. To set more sail.

Clapper. Tongue of a bell. 2. Chafing piece in jaws of a gaff.

Clarke's Figure of Earth. Measurement of Earth's polar and equatorial diameters and factors of compression made by Clarke in 1858-66-80. Equatorial diameter 20,926,348 ft., polar dia­meter 20,855,233 ft., compression 1/294-3. These values are still used in many modern charts.

Clark Russell's Log. Early type of towed log in which speed of ship was indicated by amount of compression in a spring.

Clasp Hook.* Former name for 'Clip hook'.

Classification of Stars. Astronomers group stars according to spectra and temperature. Seven principal groups are O, B, A, F, K, G, M. The temperature of O stars is about 50,000°C. M stars do not exceed 3000°C. This classification is not usually considered by seamen, but is to be found in the unabridged Nautical Almanac.

Classification Societies. Organizations established for the purpose of obtaining an accurate classification of merchant shipping, for maintaining a standard of&

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