•E.' Time value that represents the westerly hour angle of a heavenly body from the point of definition of mean time. Local mean time added to 'E' is hour angle of body concerned. Eager, Eagre

E - English Maritime terminology

•E.' Time value that represents the westerly hour angle of a heavenly body from the point of definition of mean time. Local mean time added to 'E' is hour angle of body concerned.

Eager, Eagre. Large and disturbed tidal undulation passing up an inlet or river.

Faring. Length of rope spliced in a cringle of sail, or awning, for fastening.

Earth. Third planet of solar system. Distance from Sun varies between 94.5 and 91.4 million miles. Rotates on axis in 23 h 56 m 04 s mean solar time. Revolves round Sun in 365.2422 mean solar days. Is an oblate spheroid with polar diameter of 7899-7 miles; equatorial diameter 7926.5 miles.

Earth Light. Sunlight reflected to Moon by Earth when Moon's age is either small or fairly large.

Earth Shine. 'Earth Light.' Ease. To reduce strain on a rope by slightly slackening it. 2. To

reduce the amount of helm carried. 3. To reduce speed of engines. 4. To loosen a fitting that is too tight.

East. That cardinal point of horizon lying in direction of sunrise, and in which the prime vertical cuts equinoctial.

Easting. Departure made by a vessel on an easterly course.

Easy. Order given when rowing and a reduction of speed is desired.

Oars are pulled but with reduced effort. Also given when any reduction of effort is required.

Easy Trimmer. Coal-carrying vessel having large hatches, no tween decks and no obstructions in holds. Trimming of cargo is not required until hatches are nearly filled.

Ebb. Vertical falling of water level due to tidal force.

Ebb Stream. Horizontal movement of water due to fall of tidal height.

Ebb Tide. Tide that is falling from high water to low water.

Eccentric. Any circle or sheave revolving on an axis not in its centre.

Eccentricity (of Orbit). Distance of focus from centre of ellipse of a planetary path.

Echelon. Formation of a line of ships in which each ship is on the quarter of ship ahead: thus allowing all guns to be used ahead, astern or on the beam.

Echo. Reflected sound. Travels at same speed, whatever its wave­length. In radar (2) the radio energy returned to the aerial as a result or reflection or scattering from an object. 3. The representation of (2) on a radar display. False echo, one whose position on the display does not indicate the correct range and/or bearing of the target.

Echo Box. A type of Performance Monitor which shows the per­formance of a radar set.

Echometer. Echo sounder produced by Marconi Sounding Device Co., Ltd.

Echo Sounder. Electrically operated instrument that emits a sound from vessel's submerged surface and then measures time interval until return to echo—which is recorded. Graduated scale converts interval to depth indication. May be of 'Sonic' or of 'Supersonic' type.

Echo Sounding. Ascertainment of depth of water by use of an echo sounder.

Eclipsareon. Instruction apparatus for explaining the occurrence of eclipses.

Eclipse. Cessation of light due to passing into a shadow. Applied to darkening of Moon's disc when she passes into shadow cast by Earth. Also applied to occultation of Sun by Moon. Strictly speaking, the latter is a misnomer, but is universally sanctioned by long-established usage.

Eclipsing Binaries. Twin stars that revolve around a common centre and thus alternately occult each other, as viewed from Earth. Due to their great distance from us they appear as one star of varying magnitude. Algol is a well-known example.

Ecliptic. Great circle of celestial sphere in which Earth revolves around Sun. So named because Moon must be in it, or near it for an eclipse to occur.

Eddy. Wind or water moving in a curved or circular direction. 2. Current of water running in a direction contrary to that of a tidal stream.

Efficiency. Term that denotes amount of energy delivered as a percentage of that put in. Boiler efficiency is about 65-70%; mechanical efficiency of an engine is about 90%. Steam effic­iency of engine is 20-30%. Propeller efficiency is about 60%.

Efficient Deck Hand. Seaman over the age of 19 who has passed an examination entitling him to rank as a competent seaman.

Eft Castel.* Old name for after castle or poop.

Eft Schip.* 'Eft castel.'

Ekeing. Additional piece of wood used for making good a deficiency in length of a supporting member of a wooden ship. 2. Carved work at after end of quarter gallery.

Ekman Current Meter. Mechanism that is lowered into water for measuring translation of water forming a current. Result is a distance, which can be converted to rate by comparing it with time submerged. Kept in line with current by a vane. Measures speeds up to 3 ½ knots. With reversing currents, reverse of direc­tion of instrument results in a separate counting of revolutions of meter; this being effected by a compass unit.

Ekman Theory of Drift. Proposes that drift of sea at surface, in Northern hemisphere, is inclined 45° to right of wind direction;

and average of all values, from surface to bottom, is 90° from wind direction.

Elastic Coupling. Coupling in which springs are incorporated to deaden excessive shocks put on mechanism. 2. Connection in a machine in which a certain amount of change in alignment is allowed for.

Elastic Limit. Maximum value in tons per square inch of sectional area of a metal member, that can be applied to the member without causing permanent deformation.

Elastic Propeller. Experimental propeller having blades of elastic steel. As pressure increases, blades approach a disc-like form.

Elbow. Half turn of one cable around the other ^when riding at open hawse. Results from swinging twice in the same direction at turn of tide. 2. Alternative name for 'Knee.'

Elder Brethren. Masters of Trinity House, London.

Electric Circuit. Conductor along which an electric current is confined.

Electric Current. Passage of negatively-charged electrons along a conductor.

Electric Fish. Fish that gives a galvanic shock when touched. Silurus and torpedo fish are examples.

Electricity. Energy that is possibly due to movement in atoms. Manifests its existence in production of light, heat, decomposi­tion, and in formation of a magnetic field.

Electric Log. Log that is electrically connected to register distance, and/or speed, at a position remote from the log. Name was originally given to a log that had a wire in the logline so that registration unit could be started or stopped at a precise instant.

Electric Propulsion. Ship propulsion by propellers driven by elec­tricity generated in a ship.

Electric Psychrometer. Hygrometer of Assmann type but with electrically-driven fan.

Electric Superheater. Electrically-heated element interposed between H.P. and I.P. engine to reheat exhaust steam from H.P. cylinder.

Electric Welding. Uniting of two pieces of metal, by fusion, with an electric arc.

Electrode. Conductor by which electricity is passed to a liquid or gas.

Electro Magnet/ Core of iron or steel, surrounded by a coil, and becoming magnetised when electric current passes through coil.

Elephanta. Electrical storm accompanying the break of the Indian rainy season and commencement of Madras monsoon.

Elevated Pole. That pole of Earth, or heavens, that has same name as observer's latitude, and is, therefore, above his horizon.

Elevation. Height above a given plane. May be expressed in lineal measurement, or as an angle. Formerly used as meaning 'altitude'.

Elliot's Eye.* Splice formerly made in rope cable. One strand was unlaid into three smaller ropes: two of these ropes were long-spliced together, the third was eye-spliced. Thimble was then fitted into the two eyes thus formed; the whole being finished off with a seizing and keckling.

Ellipse. Plane figure bounded by a curve around two points (foci) of such form that the sum of length of two lines drawn from any point in curve to the two foci will be equal to length of major axis. Ellipse is important in that its perimeter is the curve in which any satellite heavenly body goes around its primary.

Elliptical Constituents. Those increases and decreases in tidal heights and intervals that are due to elliptical curve of Moon's orbit around Earth.

Ellipticity. Alternative name for 'Compression of Earth's axis'.

Elmo's Fire. Corposant. 'St. Elmo's Fire.'

Elnath. Star b Tauri. S.H.A. 279°; Dec. N29°; Mag. 1-8.

Elongation. Distance of Moon, or planet, from Sun, when measured in celestial longitude. Elongation of metal is increase in length when due to tensile stresses; also applied to the maximum amount that it will increase without fracture.

Elphinstone's Speed Indicator. Instrument used in conjunction with Forbe's log to convert distance recordings into speed indications.

Eitanin. Star y Draconis. S.H.A. 91°; Dec. N51°; Mag. 2-4.

Embargo. Governmental restraint on the sailing of a ship from a port, or the shipment of specified cargoes.

Embarkation. The going on board, or putting on board a vessel.

Embrail. To brail up, or brail in, a sail.

Emersion. End of an occulation when occulted body emerges from behind the occulting body.

Emigrant. Person who goes from one country to settle in another. In law, is a steerage passenger.

Emigrant Ship. One carrying emigrants. In law, is one carrying more than 50 steerage passengers, or one statute adult for every 20 tons (33 tons in sailing ship) of registered tonnage.

Enavigate.* To sail out.

Encumbered Vessel. One so employed that full movement under sail, engines or steering gear is not to be expected.

End for End. Reversal of a rope, spar, etc., so that one end occupies the position previously held by the other.

End On. Said of a vessel when her fore and aft line coincides with observer's line of sight. More specifically applied to an approaching vessel whose fore and aft line is in line with fore and aft line of observer's vessel.

End on Rule. Rule of International Rules for Preventing Collision at Sea. So called because it deals with steam vessels approaching end on.

Endorsement. Writing on back of document as a ratification, approval, acknowledgement or sanction.

End Plates. Flat plates forming ends of a cylindrical boiler.

End Ring. Band fitted at end of a spar to prevent splitting.

End Seizing. 'Flat Seizing.'

Endurance. Number of miles a vessel can travel at a given speed, or horse power, before exhausting her fuel.

Engagement. Act of hiring or employing.

Engineer. Officer who is in charge of engines for the time being. Certificated officer competent to take charge of engines and to effect repairs and adjustments.

Engine-Room. Space in which main engines are situated, controlled and attended.

Engine Seat. Strengthened floors, plates and other members, in which bedplate and main engines rest.

English Quadrant. 'Backstaff,' or 'Davis Quadrant'.

English Sennit. Made with any number of parts, each of which is laid alternately over and under the other parts.

Enif. Star e Pegasi. S.H.A. 34°; Dec. S10°; Mag. 2-5.

Enquette du Pavilion. Demand, made by warship, for a vessel to show her national ensign.

Ensign. National flag or banner; more especially when national ensign is in upper inner canton and remainder is of one colour.

Entering In. Reporting arrival of a ship to Customs authorities, by Master.

Entering Out. Report made to Customs authorities before taking cargo into a ship.

Entering Port. 'Entry Port'. In some countries special ports are nominated at which vessels must first call before other harbours may be visited. Vessels must also call at the Entry Port before finally leaving the country.

Entrance. Form of fore part of vessel's hull below water line.

Entropy. Heat energy that is not convertible to work.

Entry. Opening, in ship's side, by which one enters. 2. Entrance.

Epact. Difference in days and parts of a day, between 12 lunations and a solar year. Value is 10 days 15 hours. Epact for the year is Moon's age at 00 hrs. on January 1. Epact for the month is Moon's age at 00 hrs. on first day of month, assuming Epact of year to be 00 hrs.

Ephemerides Nautiques. Abridgment of 'Connaissance des Temps' made for use of seamen. It is thus the French equivalent to the British 'Nautical Almanac.'

Ephemeris. Almanac giving positions of heavenly bodies at intervals not exceeding one day.

Epicycle. Circle whose centre is situated in circumference of another circle.

Epoch. A particular moment of time from which other times are reckoned. In tides, it may be used to define the instant when an harmonic constituent transits a meridian. In U.S.A. practice it is used to denote the interval between the transit of a tidal con­stituent and the occurrence of its maximum effect.

Epoch of Chronometer. Elapsed interval from the last comparison. Generally expressed in days and fraction of a day.

Epotides.* Blocks of wood on either side of stem of a galley.

Equal Altitudes. Two observations of the same body, one on either side of meridian, when used for finding longitude.

Equation. Two quantities, or groups of quantities, that are equal algebraically or arithmetically. Also, a constant to be applied to one value to obtain a required value.

Equation of Equal Altitudes. Method of finding time of meridian transit of a heavenly body by timing an altitude on one side of meridian and then noting instant when altitude is the same on other side of meridian. Ignoring change in declination, mean of times will be time of meridian transit.

Equation of Light. Time taken by light of Sun to reach Earth. Value is 08 m 20 sec.

Equation of Time. Difference between mean time and apparent time; between hour angles of mean and true suns; between right ascensions of mean and true suns. Varies between 16 ¾ minutes minus to apparent time, and 14 ½ minutes plus to it. Is zero about April 15, June 15, September 1 and December 24.

Equator. That great circle, of terrestrial sphere, whose axis and poles are the rotational axis and poles of earth. Latitude is measured north and south from it.

Equatorial Air. Name sometimes given to 'Tropical Air'.

Equatorial Counter Current. Ocean current setting E'ly through Doldrums between N and S Equatorial Currents.

Exmeridian Altitude. Altitude of a heavenly body taken when near to meridian but not on it. Used for finding latitude.

Expansion. Increase in volume due to application of energy or force, or to release of compression.

Expansion Joint. Joint across the top decks of a large passenger ship to allow for the working of that part of the ship in a seaway.

Expansion Trunk. Compartment in oil-carrying vessel. Carries a reserve supply of oil for compensating changes in volume of cargo due to changes of temperature.

Expiration Clause. Alternative name for 'Continuation Clause'.

Explosives. Defined by statute as including gunpowder, nitro-glycerine, gun cotton, blasting powder, fulminate of any metal, coloured fibres and every other substance made to produce a practical effect by explosion, or a pyrotechnic effect.

Express Warranties. Detailed and explicit warranties included in, or written upon, a policy of marine insurance or some other document incorporated by reference into the policy. Extending/Extension of Protest. Amplifying/amplification of a protest previously noted in common form. Must be done within six months of noting.

Extra Flexible Steel Wire Rope. Has 24 wires, around a fibre heart, in each of its six strands.

Extra Zodiacal Planet, Planet whose orbit extends beyond zodiacal belt. An asteroid.

Eye. Loop of eye splice, particularly one in stays and shrouds.

Eyebolt. Circular loop of metal secured for taking hook of shackle of purchase, or rigging.

Eyebrow. Semicircular guttering above a circular port or a scuttle.

Eyelet/Hole. Small hole in canvas to take a lacing or lanyard. May be stitched or grommeted.

Eyelet Punch. Specially shaped tool used, with block, when clinch­ing brass grommets to an eyelet.

Eye of Anchor. Circular hole, at upper end of shank, to take ring or shackle pin.

Eye of Storm. Central area of calm in a tropical cyclone.

Eye of Wind. Direction from which wind blows. Point directly to windward.

Eyepiece. Small lens of telescope, through which/observer looks.

Eyes of Her. Extreme forward end of a vessel. Hawse holes for cable. Chinese vessels have eye painted each side of stem on outboard side.

Eye Splice. The tucking of strands of a rope into the same rope after its end has been turned back to make a loop.

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