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F - English Maritime terminology

Face Piece. Timber on fore part of knee of head to allow for shortening of bolts and for simplifying fitting of main piece.

Factor of Safety. Number that represents breaking strength as compared with safe working load. In propeller shafts it is about 6; in shell plating 4 ½ ; in piston rods 12.

Factory and Workshops Act, 1901. Main Act under which 'Docks Regulations' derive' their authority.

Faculae. Unusually bright patches sometimes observable near Sun's limb.

Fading. Falling off in strength of a radio signal. Due to variations in atmospheric path.

Fag (Fagg) End. Unlaid end of a rope. 2. Old name for a young and inexperienced seaman, to whom odd jobs were given.

Fag Out. To unlay end of a rope.

Fahrenheit Scale. Calibration of thermometer by G. 0. Fahrenheit. Range between freezing and boiling points of water is divided into 180 degrees. Zero is temperature of a mixture of snow and salt. Boiling point of water is 212°; freezing point 32°. Having a zero well below freezing point of water, the general readings of air temperature are positive.

Faik.* 'Fake'.

Failure to Join. Non-compliance with undertaking to rejoin ship at a specified time. Used as denoting such non-compliance when reason for not rejoining is unknown.

Fair. To adjust to proper shape or size.

Fair Curve. Line drawn through certain parts of ship for which special delineation is desired.

Fairing. Checking and correcting a ship's plans before commencing construction.

Fair in Place. To fair a fitting or member without removing it.

Fairlead, Fairleader. Fixture that ensures a rope leading in a desired direction. May be of any shape or material. Special fairleads are fitted at bows and sterns of ships for taking mooring ropes. Pierced lengths of wood are used in sailing craft to separate falls of running rigging.

Fair On. Fair in place.

Fairway. Navigable water in a channel, harbour or river.

Fair Weather. Adjective applied to a person or fitting that is satisfactory in fair weather, but disappointing in adverse cir­cumstances.

Fair Wind. Wind that is not before the beam and not directly aft.

Fake. One circle of a coil of rope. To coil or arrange a rope ornamentally with each fake flat, or almost flat, on the deck, usually in a circle or figure-of-eight pattern. Sometimes called 'cheesing down'.

Falcate. Said of Moon when in first or fourth quarter. Sickle-shaped.

Falconet.* Old ordnance firing a shot of 1 ¼ to 2 Ib. Length 6 ft; weight 4 cwt.

Fall. Hauling part of a purchase or tackle. Rope by which a boat is hoisted.

Fall Away. To be blown to leeward. Can be said of a vessel with relation to a fixed object, or to ship's head with relation to her projected course.

Fall Astern. To get astern of another vessel by reduction of speed.

Fall Aboard. To come in contact with another vessel, more or less broadside on, through action of wind or tide.

Fall Block Hook. Former fitting for releasing a ship's boat in a seaway. Pendant from davit head released hook from slings when boat was at a predetermined distance below davits.

Fall Cloud. Low-lying stratus cloud.

Fall Down. To move down a river or estuary by drifting with stream or current.

Fall Foul Of. To come in contact with another vessel and become foul of her rigging or cable.

Fall Home, Falling Home. Said of ship's sides when they slope upward and inward.

Falling Off. Movement of ship's head to leeward of course.

Falling Star. Meteorite that has become incandescent through friction with Earth's atmosphere. Falling Time. Of barometer, is time taken by mercury of an inclined barometer to fall to proper level when placed vertically. Is an indication of sensitivity of instrument.

Fall In With. To sight or closely approach another vessel at sea.

Tall Not Off.' Injunction to helmsman of sailing ship not to allow vessel's head to fall to leeward.

Fall Off. Movement to leeward of ship's head.

Fall Out. Said of ship's sides when breadth increases as sides go upward.

Fall Wind.* Sudden gust.

False Cirrus. Cirriform cloud extending above cumulonimbus.

False Colours. National flag shown by a vessel when it is other than the ensign she is entitled to wear.

False Fire.* Old name for blue pyrotechnic light.

False Keel. Additional keel fitted to main keel to protect it in event of vessel taking the ground.

False Keelson. Additional keelson fitted above main keelson.

False Points.* Name sometimes given to 'three-letter' points of mariner's compass.

False Rail. Additional piece of timber attached to head rail, or main rail, for strengthening or facing purposes.

False Stem. Tapered cutwater clamped to stem of wooden vessel.

Family Head.* Olden name for vessel's stern when decorated with several full-length figures.

False Sternpost. Timber attached to after side of wooden sternpost.

Fanal. The lamp, and its mechanism, in a lighthouse.

Fancy Line. Downhaul runner at throat of a gaff. 2. Line for hauling on a lee toppinglift.

Fang. Valve of a pump box. 2. To prime a pump.

Fanion. Small marking flag used when surveying.

Fanny Adams. Name given to tinned mutton in R.N.

First issued. in 1867. A child of this name, 9 years old, was murdered about the same time.

Fantod. A nervour and irresolute person.

Farcost.* A ship or boat. A voyage.

Fardage. Dunnage used with bulk cargo.

Farewell Buoy. Buoy at seaward end of channel leading from a port.

Fash. An irregular seam.

Fashion Pieces. Outer cant frames.

Fashion Plate. Ship side plate at end of well deck. Usually has an end that is swept in a curve.

Fast. Hawser by which a vessel is secured. Said of a vessel when she is secured by fasts.

Fast Ice. Ice extending seaward from land to which it is attached.

Father of Lloyds. Name given to Julius Angerstein, 1735-1823. Father of Navigation. Dom Henrique, better known as Prince Henry the Navigator. 1394-1460.

Fathom. Six feet (1.83 metres); length covered by a man's out­stretched arms. Fathom of wood is a cubical volume 6' x 6' x 6' =216 cu.ft.

Fathometer. Echo-sounder made by Submarine Signal Co. of Boston, U.S.A.

Fathom Lines. Lines drawn on chart to limit areas having depths of 1, 3, 6, 10, 30, and 100 fathoms.

Fathom Wood. Second-hand wood sold in cubic fathom lots.

Fatigue. Deterioration in strength of a metal due to stress, varia­tions in temperature, vibration and other factors.

Faying. Uniting or joining closely. Joining edges of plates or planks to make a flat surface.

Faying Surface. That surface of a fitting, or member, by which it is joined to another faying surface.

Feather (an Oar). To put the blade of oar horizontal, when taken from water at end of stroke, and keep it so during its movement forward.

Feather Edged. Said of a plank that is thicker along one edge than along the other edge.

Feathering Float. Paddle board of a feathering paddle wheel.

Feathering Paddle Wheel. Wheel having a subsidiary gearing so that paddles are mechanically governed and enter water vertically, remain vertical while submerged, and so propel vessel directly forward or astern.

Feathering Propeller, Screw. Propeller having gearing that can cause blades to be turned fore and aft when vessel is under sail alone.

Feather Spray. Foaming water that rises upward immediately before stem of any craft being propelled through water.

Feed. Water pumped into boiler to maintain water level. 2. Oil fed to sprayers of oil-burning furnace.

Feeder. Temporary wooden trunkway fitted in hatch of a vessel carrying grain in bulk. Contains between 2 per cent and 6 per cent of hold capacity, and feeds the hold as grain settles. 2. Usual name for 'oil feeder'.

Feed Heating. Increasing temperature of boiler feed water, or fuel oil, immediately before feeding.

Feed Tank. Any tank that feeds a service. Particularly, tank that contains feed water for boilers.

Feeler. Small implement used when sounding with deep-sea appar­atus. Consists of stout wire, mounted in a wood handle, with extremity of wire bent at right angle to remainder. Laid on wire, when sounding, to detect momentary slacking of wire when sinker reaches the bottom.

Felucca. Undecked boat of Mediterranean. Has long beak, lateen sails and may pull up to 12 oars a side.

Fend. To protect. To bear off. To insert a fender.

Fender. Any material or fitting used for protecting a floating object from damage by chafing or collision.

Fender Bolt. Bolt having a large, rounded and projecting head. Used, formerly, on outside planking of wooden vessels to protect from chafing.

Ferro-Cement. Method of constructing vessels with steel re-enforced concrete.

Ferry. Boat or vessel plying across a narrow piece of water. Also used as a verb.

Fetch. Of wind, is distance from starting point to observer, and measured along the water troubled by it. In sailing, is to reach or attain. To fetch a pump is to prime it by putting water inside pump and above plunger.

Fetch Away. To break adrift.

Fid. Strong wood or metal pin passing horizontally through heel of an upper mast and resting on trestle tree of mast below. 2. Large and conical piece of wood used for opening strands of large rope. Often has broad base so that it can stand vertically when rope is worked over its point.

Fiddle Block. Block having one shell but appearing to be two blocks end to end. Each part has its own sheave, but strop passes around both parts. Has all advantages of a double block with additional advantages that it is narrower, and block has no tendency to topple.

Fiddle Head. Ornamental carving on stem of a vessel when it remotely resembles a fiddle.

Fiddles. Wooden fittings clamped to meal tables in heavy weather. They limit movement of dishes, plates, glasses, etc.

Fiddley, Fidley. Stokehold casing and funnel casing.

Fid Hammer. Hammer with one end elongated and tapered. Used when knocking out a fid. Tapered end makes an emergency fid.

Fiducial Points. Those indications, in the graduation of a scale, that were carefully and precisely ascertained; and were not deduced from other indications in the scale.

Fiducial Temperature. That temperature at which the reading of a mercurial barometer requires no correction for expansion of mercury.

Field Ice. Ice pack whose limits cannot be seen from ship.

Field Magnet. Permanent magnet of a dynamo- Establishes a magnetic field in which armature rotates.

Field of View. Area that can be seen when looking through an optical instrument.

Fife Rail. Horizontal rail, or timber, in which are a series of belaying pins.

Fifteen-Metre Type. First international type of yacht (1911). Length overall, 76 ft.; L.W.L., 49 ft.; Beam, 13.8 ft.; Sail area 4450 sq. ft.; Reg. tonnage, 27.5; T.M. tonnage, 50; Freeboard. 3.7 ft.

Fifty-Gun Ship. Man of war intermediate between frigate and ship of the line.

Figsies. Elizabethan spelling of 'Fizgigs'.

Figure Head. Carved figure on stem and immediately below bowsprit.

Figure of Eight. Knot put in end of rope or fall to prevent it unreeving through a block or sheave.

Filibuster. Originally, a buccaneer. Now applied to any lawless adventurer.

Fill (a Sail). To trim a sail so that wind acts on it.

Filler, Filling. Piece put into a made mast to complete its shape.

Filling. Name was formerly given to a composition sheathing - placed between frames of a wooden vessel to close seams and exclude vermin.

Fine Lines. Said of a ship that has a fine entrance and less than average beam.

Fire Appliances. Usual name for fire-fighting appliances.

Fire Booms. Booms rigged out from ship's side and carrying a rope secured at head of each boom. Used for keeping off fire ships and other hostile craft.

Firefoam. Preparation for extinguishing oil fires by spreading foam over oil surface, and smothering the ignited layer.

Fire Ship. Comparatively worthless vessel loaded with combustibles and allowed to drift amongst fleet of enemy ships at anchor; fire ship being ignited just before contact.

Firing Point. That temperature at which a given liquid gives off vapour in sufficient quantity for the surface layer to ignite when vapour is ignited by flash.

First Mate. Deck officer next in rank below Master. Officer holding a First Mate's Certificate of Competency.

First Meridian. Prime meridian. Meridian from which longitude is reckoned. By general consent the meridian of Greenwich has been adopted.

First of Exchange. Stamped and No. 1 bill of exchange when more than one copy make a set.

First Point of Aries. That point in which Equinoctial and Ecliptic intersect and Sun passes from south to north declination. It was, originally, in constellation Aries but, due to precession of Equinoxes, is now in sign of Pisces. Sun enters Aries on March 21 (about).

First Point of Cancer. That point in Ecliptic which is farthest removed from Equinoctial in a northerly direction; Sun reaches this point about June 21. Owing to precession of equinoxes this point is now in Gemini.

First Point of Capricorn. That point in Ecliptic that is farthest removed from Equinoctial in a southerly direction. Sun reaches this point about December 21. Owing to precession of equin­oxes this point is now in Sagittarius.

First Point of Libra. That point in which Equinoctial and Ecliptic intersect and Sun passes from north to south declination. It was, originally, in constellation Libra but, due to precession of Equinoxes, is now in Virgo.

First Rate. Old classification for war vessels carrying 100 or more guns.

'First Turn of the Screw (propellers) Pays all Debts.' Seaman's remark when leaving a port at which he owes money.

Fish. To fish a spar is to strengthen it, when fractured or weak­ened, by lashing or fastening another piece to it. To fish an anchor, when weighed, is to lift the arms so that anchor lies horizontally on anchor bed or billboard.

Fish Block. Lower block of a fish tackle.

Fish Bolt. Used for replacing a missing rivet in ship's plating. May be drawn through hole by line led through hole and floated to surface. Alternative type has spring fins in extremity of bolt;

these open out when clear of hole and allow washer and nut to be screwed up.

Fish Davit. Davit taking upper block of fish tackle.

Fisherman's Bend. Useful bend for securing a rope to a ring. Made by taking end twice through ring and then over standing part and between ring and turn put round it. Additional half hitch round standing part is optional, and rarely necessary.

Fishery Cruiser. Armed vessel whose duties are to preserve order on the fishing grounds, to maintain rights of fishing vessels and to prevent smuggling and unlawful practices.

Fishes. Pieces of timber lashed to a yard or mast to strengthen it.

Fish Eye. Name sometimes given to streamlined connecting piece in Walker's log line.

Fish Fall. Fall of a fish tackle.

Fish Front. Rounded timber on fore side of a made mast.

Fishing Boat. Any fishing vessel other than those engaged in seal, whale, walrus, or Newfoundland cod fisheries—but including Canadian and Newfoundland cod fishing vessels, and Scottish vessels whaling off Scottish coasts.

Fishing Boat's Register. Certificate of registry of a fishing boat.

Fishing Lights. Statutory lights required to be shown by a vessel engaged in fishing.

Fish Plate. Name given to boundary iron on outboard side of a superstructure deck.

Fish Sides. Convex timbers on sides of a made mast.

Fish Tackle. Small tackle at head of fish davit. Used for lifting flukes of anchor to billboard or anchor bed.

Fish Tail. Name sometimes given to rotator of patent log.

Fitting Out Supplying and fitting hull of a vessel with all the additional fixtures, rigging and attachments it requires.

Fitzroy Beacon. Type of dan buoy used by surveying ships. Is somewhat similar to Ormonde beacon, but is floated by two 25-gallon oil drums and has a heel weight of 1 ½ cwt.

Five Eight Rule. Used for finding area of a plane surface having one curved side. From base line, perpendiculars are drawn to ends of curve, a third perpendicular being drawn at mid length of base. Area of either space is found by adding five times length of end ordinate to eight times length of middle ordinate, sub­tracting length of third ordinate, and multiplying result by 1/12th of common interval.

Fix. Position of ship when found by intersection of two or more position lines.

Fixed Laydays. Lay days that are specified by number, and not derivable by calculation, rate of working, etc.

Fixed Light. Applied to a navigational aid that shows a continuous light, without eclipse or occulation.

Fixed Signs.* Four signs in which weather was supposed to be less variable than usual when Sun was in them. They were Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius.

Fixed Stars. Name that distinguishes stars from planets. More particular, to distinguish stars that have no proper motion from those that have.

Fizgig. Steel or iron implement with two or more barbed prongs. When attached to a shaft carrying a line, is used for spearing fish. Neptune's trident is a form of fizgig. Fjord. A deep, narrow and winding gulf.

Flag. Any colours or signal bunting other than pendants, but including burgees and triangular flags.

Flag Lieutenant. Lieutenant in R.N. who is on staff of, and person­ally attends, a nag officer. Flag of Convenience. A foreign flag under which a ship is registered to avoid taxation etc, at home.

Flag Officer. Naval officer entitled to fly the flag of his rank. Includes Rear-Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Admiral, Admiral of the Fleet, and Chief officer of a yacht club.

Flag Ship. Warship carrying an admiral in command of a squadron or fleet.

Flake. To coil a rope so that each coil, on two opposite sides, lies on deck alongside previous coil; so allowing rope to run freely.

Flaking a Mainsail. Lowering a gaff mainsail and disposing of it in bights on either side of boom.

Flam.* Former name for flare of ship's bows.

Flamming Tackle. Purchase used for hauling an anchor to ship's side when stowed vertically outside a flared bow. Was manned between decks; and outboard end of purchase was passed through a 'flamming port'.

Flange Bows. Flared bows.

Flare. Upward and outward sweep of a ship's bows. 2. Large, bright but unsteady light that dies down after a time.

Flashing. Applied to a light that suddenly appears, shows for a short interval and then ceases. A recurring light that shows for a period that is shorter than the interval between its appearances. 2. Morse signalling with a lantern or other light.

Flashing Lamp Lantern. One that has mechanism for quickly showing a light and quickly obscuring it, so that Morse signals may be made.

Flashing Light. Navigational aid that shows a light for a period that is less than its period of eclipse.

Flash Point. That temperature to which a combustible liquid must be heated for it to give off a vapour that will momentarily flash in presence of a naked light.

Flat. Expanse of low-lying ground over which tide flows. 2. A flat-bottomed craft. 3. A flat floor. 4. Working space below decks in a warship.

Flat Aback. Said of a ship, or sail, when wind is on fore side of sail and is pressing it back.

Flat Aft. Said of a fore and aft sail when sheet is hauled to fullest extent.

Flat-Bottomed. Said of a craft whose bottom has no curvature.

Flat Floor. Girder or timber going athwart bottom of a vessel and having no upward curvatures of outboard ends.

Flat In. To haul aft the sheet of a fore and aft sail to fullest extent.

'Flat Iron.' Shallow draught war vessel specially designed for river and coastal work. Had abnormal beam and bulged sides. Correct name v/as 'River gunboat'. 2. Steam vessel designed for carrying coal cargoes to berths above bridges of Thames. Has very low superstructure; masts and funnel are hinged for lowering.

Flat Plate Keel. Shaped plating running along centre line outside ship's bottom, being strengthened by an internal vertical girder.

Flat Seam. Made in canvas by overlapping edges and stitching edge of each cloth to standing part of other cloth.

Flat Seizing. Used for binding two parts of rope together with small line, spunyard or wire. Eye is made in small line and line is passed round parts of rope and through its own eye. Taut turns are then passed, being finished by a clove hitch between the two parts of rope and round all turns of seizing.

Flat Sennit. Usual name for 'English Sennit'.

Flatten. To flat in a sail.

Flaw. A gust of wind.

Flax Rope. Made of Irish flax, and has a breaking strain more than twice that of manilla hemp rope of same size.

Fleet. Number of ships under one command or ownership. 2. To overhaul a tackle and shift moving block to a position further away. 3. Area in which a man, or party, of men can work without shifting. 4. Flat land covered by water.

Fleet Auxiliary. Vessel, other than a warship, attending a fleet for repair service, bunkering, hospital service or other duties.

Fleeting. Shifting the moving block of a tackle from one place of attachment to another place farther along. Moving a man, or men, from one area of work to area next to it.

Fleet Policy. Contract of marine insurance that covers all vessels under one ownership.

Flemish Coil. Successive ovals, or circles, of rope so arranged that each coil lies closely alongside the previous coil, end being in centre.

Flemish Eye. Made in end of a rope by unlaying the rope to a distance marked by a whipping, and unlaying strands. Using a round bar, one yarn is brought up on either side and half knotted together, the ends lying along rope. When all yarns are hitched, the eye so formed is served or marled. Ends of yarns are tapered and served.

Flemish Horse. Foot rope on yard, from yard arm to band of slings, or to strop of brace block.

Flense. To remove the blubber and cut up a whale or seal.

Fleur de Lys. Used for indicating North point of compass card. First introduced in 1302, by Flavio Gioja, as a compliment to the king of Naples, who was of French descent.

Flexible Steel Wire Rope. Has 6 strands around central fibre heart. Each strand has 12 wires around fibre heart. Breaking stress is approximately equal to tons denoted by twice the square of circumference in inches.

Flinders Bar. Sections of cylindrically-shaped soft iron that are mounted vertically on fore, or after, side of binnacle to compen­sate for vertical-induced magnetism of ship. Named after Captain Matthew Flinders, R.N.

Float. To be waterborne. 2. Abbreviation of 'paddle float' or 'float board'. 3. Name of a file having cuts in one direction— not cross cut. 4. Buoyant ball or cylinder operating a valve or cock.

Float Board. One of the boards on a paddle-wheel.

Floating Anchor. 'Sea anchor,' 'Drogue'.

Floating Battery. Heavily armed, shallow draught warship, for­merly used for harbour defence.

Floating Clause. Clause inserted in a charter party to stipulate

that vessel shall always lie afloat.

Floating Dock. Buoyant dock that can be flooded so that keel, blocks are below level of keel of vessel to be docked; and pumped out so that docked vessel is lifted entirely above water level. Floating Harbour. Expanse of water protected by buoyant break­waters.

Floating Policy. One made in general terms and for an overall sum of money. Generally taken out by shipper when goods are to be carried in more than one ship. As each ship loads, the value of cargo is declared, and is deducted from overall sum to be covered.

Floating Power of Spars, etc. Positive buoyancy of a spar, or other floating body, expressed as a weight that can be carried by it. or suspended from it.

Floating Trot. Line of baited hooks made fast, attach end, to the mooring rope of a buoy.

Floe. Area of floating ice, up to 3 ft. thick, that has broken off a sheet.

Floe Berg. Heavily-hummocked ice from a pressure ridge. Is usually separated from floes. Built up by rafting and freezing.

Flood Anchor. That anchor by which a ship rides at flood tide.

Flooding. Deliberately admitting water into a hold or compartment for the purpose of extinguishing a fire, or for improving stability.

Flood Stream. Horizontal movement of water that is causing a tidal rise.

Flood Tide. Rising of water level due to tide.

Floor Boards. Planking laid on floors of wooden vessels.

Floor Head. Upper end of a floor timber.

Floor Hollow. Concave form of upper edge of a floor.

Floor Riband. Longitudinal strip that supports floors below heads.

Floors. Transverse members, erected vertically, that connect lower ends of frames on opposite sides of vessel.

Floor Timber. That part of the floor, in a wood built ship, that crosses the keel beneath the keelson.

FIota.* Spanish fleet that formerly sailed every year to Cadiz to transport cargo from Spanish South America.

Flotilla. Fleet of small vessels.

Flotilla Leader. Comparatively large, high-speed vessel that leads, and has charge of, a destroyer flotilla.

Flotsam, Flotson. Goods and fittings that remain floating after a wreck.

Flowing Sheet. Sheet that is eased off and is controlling a well-filled sail of a vessel running free.

Flowing Tide. A flood stream.

Fluid Compass. Liquid compass.

Fluke. Flattened triangular extremity of arm of an anchor.

Fluky. Said of wind when it is of no great force and varies in strength and direction.

Flurry. Sudden gust of wind. 2. Passing rain storm. 3. Agitated water caused by death throes of a harpooned whale.

Flush Deck. Upper deck that extends the whole length of vessel that has no poop or topgallant forecastle.

Flute. Boat with flat floors, rounded stern and broad beam.

Fluted Shackle. Has a grooved pin and a corresponding groove in lug. When these grooves are aligned a locking-pin is inserted.

Fly. Lengthwise expanse of a flag. 2. Old name for a compass card.

Fly Block. Double or single block used as upper purchase block of topsail halliards.

Fly Boat. Fast boat used for passenger and cargo traffic in fairly sheltered waters.

Flying Bridge. Light fore and aft bridge above main deck.

Flying Dutchman. Phantom vessel, commanded by Vanderdecken, said to be met with off Cape of Good Hope. Was sighted and reported by H.M.S. 'Bacchante' at 4 a.m., 11th July, 1881.

Flying Jib. Sail set on outer fore topgallant stay (or flying jib stay). Foremost of fore and aft sails.

Flying Jib Boom. Either the outer length of jib boom, or a separate boom extending forward of it.

Flying Kites. Fine weather upper sails.

Flying Light. Said of a vessel when in ballast and her draught marks are well above water line.

Flying Moor. Alternative name for 'Running Moor'.

Flying Pier. Light and temporary pier erected for embarkation or disembarkation.

Flying Skysail. Skysail with yard attached to sail and sent aloft on truck halliards; clews being stopped to royal yard. Was the earliest form of skysail.

Fly to. To come to the wind quickly while under sail.

Foam. Whitish froth that appears when water is agitated. It is generated more quickly in salt water than in fresh, consisting of a mass of bubbles containing air.

Fog. Impaired visibility near sea level caused by small particles of moisture suspended in air. Is usually a cloud at sea level, but may be due to smoke when in vicinity of land. A combination of smoke and fog is particularly dense. Meteorologists consider fog

to exist when visibility is less than half a mile; seamen make this limit one mile.

Fog Bank. Low-lying dense fog.

Fog Bell. Bell rung by anchored vessel in fog, in accordance with international regulations. Sometimes applied to a bell rung in fog by a lighthouse, or at a pier end. Occasionally applied to bell on a moored buoy.

Fog Bow. White 'rainbow' sometimes seen opposite to Sun during fog.

Fog Horizon. Near horizon as observed in foggy weather.

Fohn. A warm dry wind blowing down the leeward slopes of a mountain range.

Following Sea. Sea that runs, approximately, in direction of ship's course.

Fomalhaut. Star a Piscis Australis. S.H.A. 16°; Dec. 230°; Mag. 1.3. Name is Arabic for 'Mouth of the big fish'.

Food Scale. Statutory scale of food for seamen. Laid down by Merchant Shipping Act and Order in Council.

Foot (of Sail). Lower edge of sail.

Foot Brail. Lowest brail on a spanker.

Foot Hook. Original form of 'Futtock',

Footing Down. Method of getting a rope as taut as possible. Man stands midway along it so that his weight causes a small bight to be formed. As he takes his weight off it the small amount of slack rope is gathered in and rope is turned up.

Foot Outhaul. Tackle for hauling out foot of spanker.

Footrope. Rope stretched under a yard or jib boom for men to work on when handling sail. Sometimes called a 'horse'. Also, the boltrope along foot of a sail.

Footrope Knot. Diamond knot worked round a rope by using the four ends of two pieces of small line passed through the rope.

Foot Waling.* Former name for the 'ceiling'.

Foraminifera (ous). Very small and elementary type of marine life that lives in a shell. 'Foraminiferous' is adjective used when describing ooze, or other sample of sea bed, that contains foraminifera.

Forbes' Distance Recorder. Attachment used with Forbes' log to

record the distance run.

Forbes' Log. Consists, basically, of a manganese bronze tube that can be protruded through bottom of ship at a position near her turning point. Bottom of tube carries a vane that rotates as ship moves through water, sending an electric signal every 0.01 of a mile travelled. These signals operate the 'Distance Recorder' and Elphinstone's Speed Indicator.

Force of Wind. Velocity, or momentum, of wind expressed by a figure in the Beaufort Scale. Seldom exceeds 20 Ib. per sq. ft.

Forced Draught. Air supply, to a furnace, that has been increased beyond normal by subjecting it to pressure, by increasing its speed, or by expediting the removal of exhaust gases.

Forced Points. Alternative name for 'By points' of compass.

Fore. In or towards the forward part of a ship.

Fore and Aft. Leading or lying in the same direction as the length of a ship. 2. Embracing the whole length of a ship.

Fore and Aft Schooner. Vessel having fore and aft sails only. Used for differentiating such a vessel from a topsail schooner.

Fore Bitters. Songs sung on forecastle during dog watches. (R.N.)

Fore Cabin. Passenger accommodation that is inferior to saloon.

Forecastle. In Royal Navy is the upper deck from right forward to some line, usually the screen bulkhead, abaft the cable holders. In Merchant Navy is the crew's quarters, even when these are aft. In flush-decked sailing ships it extended from forward to the main tack block.

Forecastle Head. Merchant Navy name for topgallant forecastle.

Fore Course. Sail bent to fore lower yard.

Forefoot. Lower extremity of stem, usually curved, where it joins keel. Generally regarded as part of keel, the stem being said to rest upon it.

Fore Ganger. Short piece of rope, grafted on harpoon, and to which harpoon line is bent.

Fore Halliard. Halyard. Rope by which a foresail is hoisted.

Fore Hold. Foremost hold in a cargo vessel.

Fore Hood. A foremost plank in side of a wooden vessel.

Fore Hook. A breast hook.

Foreign Agreement. Articles of agreement, between Master and crew, entered into when a vessel is going outside Home Trade limits. Signed, by all parties concerned, in presence of superin­tendent of a Shipping Office.

Foreign Going Ship. Ship trading to ports outside British Isles and other than ports between Elbe and Brest inclusive.

Foreland. Land projecting some distance seaward.

Forelock. Flat piece of metal that is passed through protruding end of shackle pin to prevent its accidental withdrawal. Lower end is split so that it can be splayed.

Forelock Hook. Winch in rope making tackle block. Used for twisting yarns into strands.

Foremast. Forward mast in a vessel having two or more masts.

Fore Peak. Space between fore collision bulkhead and stem plating.

Fore Rake. That part of a vessel forward of a vertical line passing through fore end of keel.

Fore Reach. To continue making headway while going about under sail. Sometimes used as meaning to overtake, or shoot ahead

Fore Runner. Name sometimes given to bunting that marks end of stray line in line of a log ship.

Foresail. In a vessel having two sails, is the foremost sail. In fore and aft vessels having two or more masts it is the foremost gaff sail. In square-rigged vessels it is the fore course.

Fore Sheet. Rope or tackle by which clew of foresail is controlled and adjusted to wind.

Fore Ship.* Former name for bows, or forecastle.

Foreshore. Land that lies between high and low water marks on a beach. 2. Inclined surface on seaward side of a breakwater.

Fore Shroud. Standing rigging that supports and stays a foremast in a thwartship direction.

Forestaff.* Cross Staff used when facing an observed object.

Forestay. Stay of foremast, extending from head of mast to a position forward of it.

Fore Stem.* Former name for the stem of a vessel.

Fore Top. Platform, at head of foremast, to give spread to fore topmast rigging.

Foretopman. Man whose station is in fore top, or at fore topmast, when working aloft. In R.N. the name is still used to denote a man belonging to one of the four quarters into which a watch is divided.

Fore Topmast. Mast next above fore lower mast.

Forge. To force. Sometimes applied to forcing a vessel over a shoal. Forge Ahead. To go ahead by extra effort.

Forge Over. To force a vessel over a shoal. Forge Test. Applied to rivets. Head is heated and then hammered until diameter is 2 ½ times that of shank. There must be no cracking around edge.

Fork Beam. Half beam supporting a deck in way of a hatch.

Forming. Shaping a beam, frame, or other member, to exact form required.

'Forties.' Fishing ground off S.W. coast of Norway. Has an almost uniform depth of 40 fathoms.

'Forty Thieves.' Forty line of battle ships built, by contract, for Admiralty during Napoleonic wars. They were, more or less, failures.

Forward. Towards or at the bows. Fore part of a vessel.

Fothering. Closing small leaks in a vessel's underwater body by drawing a sail, filled with oakum, underneath her.

Fottinger Clutch. Hydraulic clutch in gearing of Bauer Wach turbine to propeller shaft. Used for smoothing out variations in torque.

Foul. To entangle, obstruct, or collide with.

Foul Anchor. Anchor when foul of its own cable. Sometimes said when anchor is foul of an obstruction on bottom.

Foul Berth. Anchorage in which there is not room to swing at change of tide.

Foul Ground. Sea bottom in which sunken wrecks or other obstruc­tions may cause anchor to become foul.

Foul Hawse. Having two cables out and one across, or foul of, the other.

Foul Water. Area of water containing menaces to navigation.

'Foulweather Jack.' Name given to Admiral Sir John Norris (1660-1748) and Vice-Admiral Hon. John Byron (1723-86) both of whom were singularly unfortunate in the weather their ships experienced.

Foul Wind. Wind blowing from direction a vessel wishes to sail, or in a direction that may set her into danger.

Founder. To fill with water and sink.

Fourcant. Four-stranded rope.

Four Cycle. Applied to oil engines in which the operations of charging, compression, ignition and scavenging are done in four piston strokes.

Four-Point Bearing. Direction of an observed terrestrial object when bearing is 45° from ship's course. Distance to position when object is abeam is equal to distance off when abeam.

Four S's. Four matters to have in mind before sailing. They are, steering gear, side-lights, side ports, stowaways.

Fox. Made by laying up three or more yarns and smoothing them down.

Foxon's Log. Early 19th century towed spiral log made of wood.

Foy Boat. Used in Tyne and other N.E. coast ports. About 15 ft. long, 4 ft. 6 in. beam. Pulls two oars and has a lugsail. Attended mooring of ships.

Fracto. Term used in meteorology. Means 'broken'.

Fracto Nimbus. Small and irregular pieces of nimbus cloud, generally known as 'Scud'.

Frame. Steel or iron member that extends vertically from outer end of floor to outer end of beam.

Frame Spacing. Fore and aft distances between successive frames.

Frame Timbers. Parts that make up a wooden frame.

Framing. System of frames, floors and intercostals to which outside plating of a ship is attached.

Franchise. In marine insurance is the maximum amount, usually 3 per cent. if insured value, that cannot be claimed under a policy when a loss is incurred.

Frap. To bind tightly by passing a rope around and heaving it y taut. 2. To close the seams of a leaking wooden vessel by passing ; ropes under bottom and hauling them taut on deck, or across the deck.

Frazil. Small, cake-shaped pieces of ice floating down rivers. Name is given, also, to newly-formed ice sheet off coast of Labrador.

Free. Said of a vessel under sail when she has wind abaft the beam. 2. Legally, used as indicating that no responsibility attaches to a named party in specified circumstances.

Free Alongside Ship. Stipulation that no charge or responsibility falls on ship or owner of cargo until goods for shipment are alongside ship in which they are to be loaded.

Freeboard. Height that outboard edge of deck is above water-level. Specifically, distance that statutory deck line is above water-level.

Freeboard Certificate. Load line certificate, issued by an assigning authority acting on behalf of Government, stating the statutory freeboards of a vessel in specified areas and seasons.

Free In and Out. Stipulation that carrying vessel is not to bear any expense incidental to loading and discharging.

Freeing Port. Opening in bulwarks, allowing water shipped on deck to flow overside.

Freeing Scuttle. Non-return flap that allows water to drain from deck to sea, but prevents sea entering.

Free of Address. Stipulation that specified charges shall not be made against a ship at port to which she is bound.

Free of Average. Inserted in policy of insurance to relieve insurers of liability for payment of specified losses.

Free of Capture and Seizure. Included in a policy of insurance to relieve insurers of liability for loss sustained by attack, capture or seizure made by a belligerent or enemy.

Free of Damage Absolutely. Inserted in policy of insurance to relieve insurers of liability for damage incurred. Policy would cover total loss, general average charges, salvage charges, three-fourths of 'Running Down' charges.

Free of Expense. Stipulation that loading and discharging of cargo shall not entail expense to ship. Free on Board. Stipulation that no expense shall fall on ship for the putting of cargo on board.

Free Overside. Stipulation that no expense shall fall on ship after cargo is put over the side.

Free Puff. Yachting term for a gust of wind that requires weather helm to be applied, and causes yacht to sail closer to windward.

Free Ship, Free Goods. Proposition that, in time of war, enemy goods, other than contraband, carried in a neutral vessel are not subject to capture.

F Region. 'Appleton Layer.'

Freight. Freightage. Goods loaded for transport in a vessel. 2. Money paid for carriage of goods by sea. In marine insurance, includes value of service in carrying goods of owner. Does not include passage money.

Freightage. Freight. Payment for carriage of goods by sea.

Freighter. Sea-going vessel carrying cargo. 2. One who ships cargo into a vessel.

Freight/ing. Load/ing a ship with cargo.

French Bowline. Similar to bowline except that two bights are made, instead of one, before finishing off.

French Fake. 'Flemish Coil.'

French Sennit. Made with an odd number of strands, passing out­side strand over other strands to centre, and working from each side alternately.

French Shroud Knot. Joining of two 3-stranded ropes by marry­ing them and making wall knot on one side and a crown on the other side.

Fresh Breeze. Wind of Force 5 in Beaufort Scale. Speed 17-21 knots.

Freshen Ballast. To turn over shingle or stone ballast.

Freshen the Nip. To veer or haul on a rope, slightly, so that a part subject to nip or chafe is moved away and a fresh part takes its place.

Fresh Water Allowance. Amount that a load line may be submerged when loading in water of less density than that of salt water.

Frigate. Originally, a Mediterranean vessel propelled by oars and sails. Later, name was given to a square-rigged warship having two gun decks and mounting 30 to 50 guns. They were used as scouts or cruisers and had a raised forecastle and quarter deck. Later still, they were flush-decked and mounted 28 to 44 guns; being rated as intermediate between a ship of the line and a corvette. With the coming of iron and steel ships they were displaced by cruisers, and the name lapsed. In the war of 1939-45 the name was reintroduced and given to small ships used for escort and patrol duties.

Frigate Built. Term applied to vessel having a raised forecastle and quarter-deck.

Frigatoon. Venetian vessel having a square stem, main and mizzen mast but no foremast.

Frictional Current. Water dragged along by a vessel when due to friction with her underwater surface. Reduces effectiveness of rudder.

Frictional Wake. Effect of frictional current as manifested at rudder; pressure of water being reduced on fore side of rudder when angled.

Frigid Zone. Area of Earth's surface around N or S geographical pole, and bounded by Arctic or Antarctic Circle.

Front. Used in meteorology to denote a line of demarcation between warm and cold air masses.

Frontogenesis. Birth of development of a meteorological front.

Frontolysis. The fading away, or disappearance, of a meteorological front.

Frost. Atmospheric state in which water freezes.

Frost Smoke. Congealed fog that forms over Arctic waters.

Frustration. Circumstance or event that is outside control of contracting parties and prevents fulfilment of contract.

Frustration Clauses. Included in a war-time policy of insurance not containing the 'Free of Capture' clause. Relieves insurers of liability to make good a depreciation of freight, or cargo, caused by frustration of voyage through restraint of princes.

Fuel Coefficient. Ratio between fuel consumed and effective work done. The Admiralty coefficient for ship propulsion is based on:

_______D 2/3 ×V3_______

Fuel consumed in 24-hr. (in tons)

D being displacement in tons, V being speed in knots.

Fuel Consumption. Amount of fuel used in (a) going a given distance, or (b) one hour at a given speed: (a) varies as square of speed, (b) varies as cube of speed. These are approximate values.

Fuel Oils. Viscous oils, of petroleum group, used in marine boilers. S.G. 0.9 to 0.96; flash point 150°F to 180°F.

Full. Said of sail when full of wind.

Full and By. Sailing close-hauled with all sails drawing.

Full Due. Used as indicating finality or permanency; e.g. 'Belay for a full due.'

Fullering. Closing edge of lapped plate by forcing down its lower edge of lap with a fullering tool and hammer.

Full Moon. Phase of Moon when in opposition, and her disc is entirely illuminated.

Full Rigged. Said of a vessel carrying a full suit of square sails, to topgallants or above, on all other three or more masts.

Full Scantling. Applied to a vessel with flush main deck-but may have raised forecastle, bridge deck and poop and having such

constructive strength that allows her to have minimum freeboard.

Fulmar. Small sea bird met with off St. Kilda island and in Arctic Ocean.

Fumigation. Destruction of vermin, insects or bacteria by applica­tion of fumes, gases or vapours.

Fundamental Formula. Equation cos a == cos b x cos c + cos A x sin b x sin c. Used in navigational problems to connect latitude, altitude, declination and hour angle.

Funnel. Tubular erection over boilers to carry away products of combustion. 2. Copper sheathing around head of topgallant masthead. Used for making a smooth surface for eyes of rigging to rest on, and so preventing chafe.

Funnel Cloud. Upper and visible part of water vapour arising from sea to form a waterspout.

Funnel Draught. Natural draught caused by convection and by top of funnel being considerably higher than furnaces.

Funnel Net. Fishing net in form of a tapering tube.

Funnel Temperature. Temperature of exhaust gases in funnel. Usually between 600° and 700°F.

Furling. Gathering in a sail, or awning, and confining it with stops.

Furling in a Body. Harbour stowing of a sail. Sail is gathered in towards bunt and there arranged in smooth and neat stowage, the yard being clearly denned.

Furling Lines. Name sometimes given to gaskets.

Furnace. That part of a boiler in which fuel is burnt. Can be internal or external.

Furniture. The essential fittings of a ship, such as masts, davits, derricks, winches, etc.

Furring. Double planking along a ship's side in way of her water-line to improve her stability in 16th and 17th centuries.

Futtock. One of the pieces of timber forming a rib of a wood-built vessel.

Futtock Hoop. Iron band, near head of lowermast, that takes lower ends of futtock rigging.

Futtock Plank. Ceiling plank next to keelson.

Futtock Plate. Iron plate, at edge of lower top, to which deadeyes of topmast rigging are secured. Upper ends of futtock shrouds are attached to its lower edge.

Futtock Shrouds. Short lengths of rope, wire or chain connecting futtock plate and lower ends of topmast rigging to futtock hoop.

Futtock Staff/Stave. Length of rope, or band of wood or iron, to which the lower ends of catharpins are secured.

Futtock Timbers. Middle futtocks in the built rib of a wooden vessel. Situated between upper and lower futtocks.

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