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S - English Maritime terminology

Sabik. Star h Ophiuchi. S.H.A. 103°; Dec. S16°; Mag. 2-6.

Saccade. The slatting of sails in slight airs and with heavy swells.

'Sack of Coals. Old name for 'Coal Sack'.

Sacred Anchor.* Anchor, in ancient Greek vessels, that was not let go except when in imminent danger.

Sacred Knot. Old name for 'Brahmin Knot', or 'Triangle Knot".

Saddle. Shaped piece of wood attached to a mast or spar to form a rest for another spar. One on bowsprit takes heel of jib boom; those on yards take studdingsail yards; those on mast form a rest for jaws of gaff or boom.

Safe Port. Port in which a vessel can lie at all times in good safety and free from perils of political, natural, hygienic, or other nature.

Safety Certificate. International certificate compulsorily carried by every passenger steamer of 1600 tons and upward when pro­ceeding on an international voyage. Modified certificate is given to a passenger vessel on a voyage not exceeding 200 miles from land.

Safety Hook. Cargo hook fitted with a self-mousing device.

Safe Working Load. The stress that a rope, chain, hook, or appli­ance can safely carry without risk of deformation or fracture.

Sag. To droop in the middle. 2. To drift to leeward.

Sagging Strain. Excessive stress causing a sagging to develop.

Sagittarius. Constellation situated between R.A. 18h and 20 h, Dec. 16°-20° S. Has no star brighter than magnitude 3. 2. Ninth sign of Zodiac, extending from 240° to 270° celestial longitude. Sun is in this sign from November 23 to December 22 (about).

Sag to Leeward. To make excessive leeway.

Sail. Shaped and fitted canvas, or other material, used for moving a vessel by force of the wind. 2. A sailing vessel when under sail. 3. A short voyage in a vessel under sail. Sailboard. A buoyant plank, fitted with mast, sail and wish-bone boom, upon which the sailor stands while sailing.

Sail Burton. Whip rove for sending a sail aloft for bending.

Sailcloth. Light grade canvas used for sails of boats. Supplied in 12-, 15-, and 18-inch widths.

Sail Clutch. Iron band used, instead of hoop or lashing, to attach a sail to a mast or boom.

Sail Cover. Canvas covering put over sail when not in use.

Sail Ho.5 Report of a look-out man who has sighted a sailing vessel.

Sail Hook. Small hook for holding canvas while it is being stitched.

Sail Hoops. Rings encircling a mast and attached to luff of a fore and aft sail.

Sailing. Proceeding under sail. 2. Departing from a port or harbour.

Sailing Boat. Small boat propelled by sails.

Sailing Directions. Books dealing with winds, weather, currents, and other circumstances prevailing in a given area. Compiled to give the navigator all helpful and relevant information avail­able. Name was given formerly to 'Sailing Instructions', and to 'Sailing Orders'.

Sailing Free. Sailing with wind between right aft and that direction in which vessel would be close-hauled.

Sailing Ice. Small masses of drift ice with waterways in which a vessel can sail.

Sailing Instructions. Orders given by officer commandmg a convoy to commanders of ships under convoy; detailing action to be taken in particular circumstances, code of signalling and special signals, position of rendezvous and other necessary orders and instructions. 2. Orders given relative to a particular voyage.

Sailing Master. Formerly, an officer in Royal Navy responsible to the captain for the correct navigation of the ship.

Sailing Orders. Final orders given to a warship. 2. Orders specify­ing time of sailing.

Sailings. Methods by which the course and distances sailed by a ship, and the set of tidal streams and currents, are related to the change in her geographical position.

Sailing Thwart. That thwart, in a boat, at which a mast is clamped or shipped.

Sail Loft. Large covered space in which ships' sails are cut, measured and made.

Sailmaker. Man whose occupation is to make and repair sails, together with other canvas work.

Sailmaker's Eye Splice. Used only in ropes stitched to canvas. Strands are tucked with the lay, for neatness.

Sailmaker's Whipping. The most efficient of the whippings, par­ticularly suitable when end of rope is exposed to wind. In addition to the turns of whipping passed round the end of rope, trapping turns are passed round whipping in each cantline of the rope.

Sail Needle. Special needle used when sewing canvas. Pointed end is triangular in section. Made in four sizes, 14, 14 ½ , 15, 16, the I higher numbers being less substantial than the lower.

Sail Numbers. Letters and numbers on sails of racing yachts. Upper number indicates length of yachts in metres; lower number is a private number; letter(s) indicate nationality.

Sailor. Man or boy employed in sailing deep-water craft. Word is sometimes loosely used to include men who go to sea. Used officially to denote a seaman serving on deck. At one time was a man with previous sea experience, but who was not rated able seaman.

Sailor's Disgrace. Nickname for the 'foul anchor' badge of the Lords of the Admiralty. Was the badge of Lord Howard of Effingham, who commanded the English Fleet against the Armada.

Sailors' Home. Establishment or hostel, in a seaport, for the reception, accommodation, and entertainment of seamen tem­porarily on leave, or awaiting a ship.

Sail Room. Compartment in which sails are stowed in ship.

Sail Twine. Medium-weight flax twine used for general sewing of sails and canvas by hand. Saint Elmo's Fire. Discharge of atmospheric electricity sometimes observable on masts and yards in certain states of stormy weather. Positive discharge gives the appearance of streamers; negative discharge has the appearance of a luminous coating.

Saint Nicholas. The patron saint of seamen; which accounts for the number of seaports having churches dedicated to him.

Saker. Olden gun that threw a ball weighing five to seven pounds.

Salamba. Bamboo fishing raft, with mast and sail, used in sea around Manila.

Salinity. Saltness. The amount of dissolved salt in water. Usually expressed as a ratio as compared with fresh water—fresh water being 1000 and sea water about 1026 but varying, in ports and harbours, between 1000 and 1031 (Port Said). Also known as the specific gravity of sea water.

Salinometer. Instrument for indicating the proportion of salt in a given quantity of water. Salinometer Cock. Small cock, on a marine boiler, by which water may be drawn for test purposes.

Sallee Man. Old name for the 'Portuguese Man o' War'.

Sallee Rovers. Moroccan pirates, from the port of Sallee, who preyed on Mediterranean shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Their galleys were neither large nor formidable, and the prowess of the rovers has been greatly exaggerated.

Sallying. Rolling a vessel, that is slightly ice-bound, so as to break the surface ice around her. May sometimes be done when a vessel is lightly aground, but not ice-bound.

Sally Port. Aperture, in quarter of a fire ship, for escape of crew after she has been ignited. Salmiel Wind. 'Simoon.'

Saloon. Mess room for deck officers in a merchant ship. 2. Main cabin in a passenger ship. Salt. Landsman's nickname for a seaman.

Salt Beef Squire. Naval nickname for an officer promoted from the lower deck.

Salt Horse. Salt beef. In R.N. the name is jocularly applied to an officer who has not specialised in any subject.

Saltings. Low-lying land made marshy by salt water.

Saltire. Diagonal cross, of any colour, in a flag or ensign.

Salt Junk. Salt beef.

Salute. A mutual gesture of respect and greeting. Initiated by the inferior in rank, and returned by the superior. Made by hand, the firing of guns, the letting fly of sheets, the veiling of topsails and the dipping of ensigns.

Salvage. The saving of a vessel, or cargo, from extraordinary peril or danger.

2. Compensation or reward given for the salving of property in peril. 3. Rope made of yarns laid parallel and bound together.

Salvage Agreement. Document, or undertaking, by which recom­pense for salvage services is agreed and promised under specified conditions.

Salvage Association. A corporate body that deals with salvage but does not actually carry it out. Incorporated, by Royal Charter, 1856. Governed by Lloyd's and company underwriters. 2. Company specialising in marine salvage, and owning ships and plant designed and fitted for the purpose.

Salvage Award. Sum of money awarded by Admiralty Court, or arbitrators, as recompense for salvage services rendered.

Salvage Clause. Inserted in charter party to allow vessel to attempt or render salvage services for the preservation of property in peril at sea.

Sambuk. Arab dhow with a low-curved stem and a high stern that is often lavishly decorated.

Sampan. Punt-like boat used in Chinese waters, Java, and Madagascar for fishing, carriage and merchandise, and other purposes.

Samping. When applied to wind, means 'easing' or 'dropping'.

Samson Line. Small line supplied in 30-fathom hanks weighing from one to one and a quarter pounds.

Samson Post. Stump mast for a derrick. 2. Strong oak post on fore deck of a yacht; used as a mooring-post. 3. A cable bitt. 4. A towing bollard.

Sand Strake. Garboard strake of a boat.

Sand-Warped. Left on a sand bank at ebb tide. 2. A temporary stranding at half flood of tide.

'Santa Clara.' Ship named in the earliest marine insurance policy still existing - which is dated October 23, 1347, and covers her voyage from Genoa to Majorca.

Sargasso Sea. Area of Atlantic in which surface is extensively covered by 'gulf weed'. Approximate extent is from 19° W to 47°W, and from 20° N to 25° N.

Saros. Period of 18.03 years, which is the interval at which lunar and solar eclipses repeat themselves in approximately similar circumstances.

Satellite. A secondary planet that revolves around a primary planet. Is often, but erroneously, called a 'moon'. Name is sometimes given to the fictitious bodies assumed in the harmonic analysis of tides.

Satellite Navigation. Navigation, and the instruments for it, by receiving and measuring signals from artificial satellites orbiting the earth.

Saturated Steam. Steam that has the same temperature as the water from which it is generated - as distinguished from super­heated steam.

Saturation. The carrying of the maximum amount of water vapour by the atmosphere in a given state. Amount that can be carried increases and decreases with air temperature.

Saturation Deficit. Difference between vapour pressure in a given state of the atmosphere and the maximum pressure it could carry.

Saturn. Sixth major planet from Sun. Diameter is about nine times that of Earth; distance from Sun is about 10 times that of Earth. Has nine satellites and a system of broad, flat rings around its equator.

Saucer. Iron or steel bearing, shaped like a saucer, on which vertical spindle of a capstan rests on deck below.

Save All. Strip of canvas laced to roach of a square sail to get additional wind effort. 2. Alternative name for 'Water sail*.

Saxboard. Uppermost strake of an open boat.

Scale. Numerical relationship between distance on chart and actual distance between any positions. 2. Measure, or diagram, that converts charted distance to actual distance. 3. Hard deposit that forms on inside of boilers, or on exposed ferrous metals.

Scaling. Removing scale from a surface on which it has formed. 2. Adjustment and graduation of gun sights. 3.* Cleaning the bore of a gun by firing a small powder charge.

Scampavia. Neapolitan rowing vessel, about 150 ft. long, having a 6-pounder gun forward. Had lateen main and mizen sails. Was discontinued in first half of 19th century.

Scandalize. To top yards by alternately opposite lifts, brace them on opposite tacks, loose sails in the buntlines and, in general, give the ship as untidy an appearance as possible. Was the orthodox method—especially in ships of Latin countries - of showing grief or mourning.

Scanner. The rotating or oscillating aerial of a radar set.

Scanting. Said of a wind when it draws ahead.

Scantlings. Lengths of timber having a square section not more than 5 in. by 5 in. 2. Measurements of members used in con­struction of either wood or steel ships, 3. Transverse measure­ments of a piece of timber.

Scarf. Alternative form of 'Scarph'.

Scarph. Joint used when uniting ends of two strakes or planks. Ends are bevelled, and shoulders may be cut, so that there is no increase of thickness at the doubling. With iron and steel members, bevelling increases area of weld.

Scend. Upward rising of a vessel's fore end when her stern falls into trough of sea.

Schafer Method. Procedure for restoring a person apparently drowned. Expirational movements are slow and deliberate inspirational movements being as quick as possible. This method has less initial delay than the Silvester method.

Scheat. Star b Pegasi. S.H.A. 15°; Dec. 28°N; Mag. 2-6. Name is corrupted Arabic for Tore Arm'.

Schedar. Star a Cassiopeiae. S.H.A. 350°; Tfec. N56°; Mag. 2-5.

Schermuly Pistol. Firearm that ignites and aligns a line-carrying rocket.

School. Shoal of fish, or whales.

School Ship. Instructional ship permanently moored in harbour.

Schooner. Fore and aft rigged vessel having two or more masts. First built Gloucester, Mass., about 1713.

Schottel. Propulsion and steering unit, a propeller-rudder. The horizontal propeller is driven by a vertical shaft and pivots like a rudder-blade.

Schuyt. Fore and aft rigged Dutch fishing-boat, having one or two masts.

Scirocco. Warm wind blowing from South to SE, in Mediterranean Sea, and preceding a depression moving E'ly. Name is loosely given to any warm S'ly wind in this area.

Scope. The amount of cable by which a ship rides to an anchor.

Scorbutic. Pertaining to scurvy; giving rise to scurvy.

Score. Cut-out part, of shell of a wooden block, that receives and confines the strop.

Scoriae. Reddish-brown, or black cinders of volcanic eruption.

Scorpio (Lat.= Scorpion). Constellation situated between R.A.'s 15 h 50 m and 17 h 50 m, and Dec. 20° to 43° S. Contains three bright stars, the principal being Antares.

Scotch Boiler. Cylindrical boiler with combustion chamber furnaces and smoke tubes fitted in water space. Can be single or double ended. Usually has three furnaces.

Scotched Up. Shored up.

Scotchman. Any wood batten, hide, or metal put on rigging to take a chafe. Any wooden construction placed for protective purposes.

Scotch Mist. Combination of drizzle and thick mist.

Scott-Still Engine. Small engine using steam generated by the gases exhausted by a diesel engine.

Scoute. Manx sailing craft, formerly used in herring fishery.

Scow. Flat-bottomed, square-ended craft used for transport of cargo.

Scowing. Name sometimes used for ‘Becueing’

Scran Bag. Bag, or compartment, in which articles of clothing, left lying about by naval ratings, are stowed. The articles are redeemed by payment of a small piece of soap. 2. Bread bag.

Scrap Log. Alternative name for 'Deck Log'.

Screen. Canvas partition or protection. 2. Thwartship plating of an erection on upper deck. 3. Wood or metal fixture that limits arc of visibility of a navigational light.

Screen Bulkhead. Thwartship bulkhead on upper deck at forward or after end of midships accommodation.

Screw. Screw propeller. 2. Steamer having screw propulsion.

Screw Alley. Enclosed space with a gangway alongside propeller shaft. Used when examining, lubricating, or refitting bearings of propeller shaft, or when withdrawing tail-end shaft.

Screw Aperture. Opening, in after deadwood, in which propeller revolves.

Screw Coupling. Joining piece in which a screw thread is fitted for adjusting distance or tension.

Screw Current. Moving water of the sea that flows along ship's side into the propeller, and then is driven aft and quarterly by the propeller blades.

Screw Effect. Deviation of a steamship's head from a prolongation of her fore and aft line when caused by transverse thrust – or paddle-wheel effect - of her propeller. Corrected by rudder.

Screw Log. Any log that indicates distance or speed by the screw effect of water acting on inclined planes of the log rotator.

Screw Post. 'Propeller Post.'

Screw Propeller. Immersed system of inclined planes that is revolved by an engine and forces ship in a fore and aft direction. Usually called 'propeller' or 'screw'.

Screw Race. Turbulent water thrown astern of ship by a revolving propeller.

Screw Rudder. Small screw propeller fitted at angle to fore and aft line of ship. Used for altering ship's heading, particularly when stopped. Now obsolete.

Screw Stopper. Cable stopper fitted with a bottle screw for tautening.

Screw Well. Vertical trunk into which a propeller could be lifted after being slung in tackles and tail-end shaft withdrawn. Was used, with more or less success, in old warships having sail and screw propulsion.

Scroll, Scroll Head. Decorative work at stem head of a ship – as differentiated from a 'figure' head.

Scrowl. 'Scroll.'

Scud. Fractonimbus cloud driven, by the wind, under cumulo­nimbus.

Scudding. Running before a gale with minimum canvas set.

Scull. Short oar, usually with spoon blade, rowed with one hand. 2. Small boat rowed by one man.

Sculler. Man who sculls a boat. 2. Boat propelled or impelled by sculling.

Sculling. Propelling or impelling a boat by sculling. 2. Impelling a boat by putting a scull over the stern, inclining the blade and moving it transversely.

Scupper. Hole in waterways, or bulwarks, for allowing water on deck to flow outboard.

Scuppered. Slang term for frustrated, knocked out, or killed.

Scupper Hole. The hole in a scupper.

Scupper Hose. Short length of pipe to lead scupper water clear of ship's side.

Scupper Leather. Piece of leather used to form a non-return valve in a scupper.

Scupper Lip. Projection on outboard end of a scupper discharge. Ensures water being thrown clear of ship's side.

Scupper Nail. Short nail having a large flat head.

Scupper Plate. Longitudinal plate under a waterway.

Scupper Shoot. Semi-circular spout projecting outboard, to lead scupper water clear of ship's side.

Scurvy. Form of anaemia caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. Marked by ulceration of mouth, debility, lassitude, haemorrhage, and other symptoms.

Scuttle. Small opening - in a deck, side of a ship, or compartment - that can be closed as required. Literally means a 'shutter'.

Scuttle Butt. Covered cask, having lid in head, in which fresh water for current use was formerly carried.

Scuttling. Deliberately making, or uncovering, any opening in a vessel so that sea can enter. Sometimes done to allow water to enter a stranded ship to prevent her bumping on the ground.

Scylla. One of the whirlpools (garofali) in Straits of Messina, named after a fabulous monster. Sea. Large expanse of water forming part of an ocean, or connected with it. 2. Waves or swell. 3. The movement and direction of waves. 4. Large inland lake.

Sea Acorn. A barnacle.

Sea Anchor. Floating construction, either temporary or per­manent, so shaped that it offers minimum area to the wind, and gives maximum resistance to translation through the sea. Used when it is necessary to keep a vessel head to sea and anchoring is impossible. Sea anchor is streamed by a line connecting sea anchor with ship. A drogue, as used in boats, is the simplest form.

Sea Battery. Assault upon a seaman, by Master, while at sea.

Sea Bed. Ground at the bottom of a sea or ocean.

Sea Belch. Breakers, particularly a line of breakers.

Sea Birds. Birds that live on, by, and from, the sea. Two chief classes are Laridae and Larinae (gulls) and Tubinares (petrels)., In general, they have webbed feet, and beaks adapted for seizing fish.

Sea Blubber. Nickname for jelly fish.

Seaboard. Coast, or land, continuous to a coast. Sometimes used as meaning 'seaward'.

Sea Boat. Ship's boat kept ready for immediate lowering while at sea: sometimes called 'accident boat'. 2. Applied to a ship when assessing her behaviour in a seaway.

Sea Borne. Carried by the sea. 2. Carried over the sea in a ship.

Sea Bound. Encircled by the sea.

Sea Boy. Young lad, less than 18 years of age, employed in a ship.

Sea Breeze. Wind from the sea that blows across land.

Sea Brief. 'Sea Letter.'

Sea Captain. Master of a sea-going vessel. Certificated officer competent and qualified to be master of a sea-going vessel.

Sea Cock. Screw-down valve, in bottom of a ship, by which sea water can be allowed to enter a pipe system.

Sea Craft.* Timber supporting lower deck beams of a wooden vessel.

Sea Disturbance. State of sea surface as compared with its mean level. Generally expressed by a number in a scale in which 0 represents perfect smoothness, and 10 is the maximum disturb­ance known to seamen.

Sea Dog. Old and experienced seaman. 2. Dog fish. 3.Elizabethan privateer.

Sea Eagle. Bald-headed eagle (adopted as emblem by U.S.A.). 2. Sting-ray fish.

Sea Eggs. Echinoidiae that are usually called 'Sea Urchins'.

Sea Fardinger.* A seaman.

Seafarer. One who earns his living by service at sea.

Seafaring. Serving at sea for a livelihood.

Sea Fire. Phosphorescence of the sea surface.

Sea Fret. Dawn mist at sea.

Sea Gait. Rolling swell. 2. Position of two ships when alongside one another in a swell.

Sea Gates. Pair of gates that close entrance to a dock, tidal basin, or harbour against the action of storm waves.

Sea Gauge.* Former deep-sea sounding appliance in which a column of mercury was acted upon by water pressure, the mercury compressing trapped air. A viscous substance, on top of mercury column, denoted height to which mercury rose.

Sea-Going. Applied to men, or craft, when differentiating between sea service and service in sheltered waters.

Sea Gull. Name that includes all birds of the gull family that fly mostly above the sea.

Sea Hog. Porpoise.

Sea Horizon. The line in which sea and sky appear to meet.

Sea Horse. Name given to walrus, hippopotamus, and hippo­campus; the last being a small fish with a head resembling that of a horse.

Sea Kindliness. That characteristic of a ship by which she behaves well in heavy weather, and adapts herself to varying states of the sea.

Seal. Warm-blooded carnivorous animal found in arctic and Antarctic regions and in lower latitudes. Limbs have developed into flippers.

Sealer. Man who hunts seals. 2. Vessel used in seal hunting.

Sea Lawyer. Nautical name for an argumentative person.

Sea Legs. Ability to walk fairly steadily when a vessel is labouring in a seaway.

Sea Letter. Custom house document carried by a neutral vessel on a foreign voyage in wartime. Gives port of departure, destina­tion, nature of cargo, and other relevant particulars required by a boarding officer.

Sea Level. A more or less theoretical level based on that which the sea surface would have if there were no tide, swell or wave. It thus approximates half tide level. Datum for British surveying is the mean level at Newlyn, Cornwall.

Sea Lion. Name given to a seal found in Pacific Ocean. Male is about 12 ft. long, weighs about half a ton, and has golden-brown hair.

Seam. Joining of edges of canvas, or other fabric, made by stitching. 2. Longitudinal meeting of edges of planks, strakes, or plates.

Seaman. Generally, one who follows the sea as a profession. This meaning is often limited. Merchant Shipping Acts define him as any person serving in a ship, other than the Master. In the Royal Navy, is a man who works on deck. 2. A merman.

Seamanlike. In a manner, or fashion, befitting a seaman.

Seaman's Disgrace. 'Sailor's Disgrace.'

Seamanship. The professiona1 skill of a seaman. The art of work­ing, managing, and handling a vessel, in a seaway, in a seaman-like manner.

Seamark. Erection, in shoal water, elevated above sea level to act as a beacon, navigational aid or warning.

Sea Mew. 'Sea Gull.'

Sea Mile/Nautical Mile. Distance equivalent to length of one minute of latitude at the position concerned. Varies between, approximately, 6045 ft. at Equator and 6081 ft. at Poles. Standardised, for log purposes, as 6080 ft.

Seaming Palm. Sailmaker's palm used when sewing seams. Indenta­tions in iron are smaller than those in roping palm, and it has no leather thumb guard. ;

Seaming Twine. Flax twine, 2-ply, used for sewing canvas. Supplied ' in hanks up to 1 Ib., which equals one mile of twine.

Sea Otter. Fur-bearing animal of Behring Straits and Kamchatka.

Sea Parrot. Seaman's name for the puffin.

Sea Pass. Duly attested document given to a neutral vessel, during f war, by a belligerent power. Exempts her from search or seizure ' by vessels of that power.

Sea-Pie. Seaman's dish made with alternate layers of pastry and meat; usually two of meat and three of pastry.

Sea Plats.* Old name for charts,

Sea Rate. Average gaining or losing rate of a particular chrono­meter while at sea.

Searcher. Customs officer who searches a vessel for undeclared goods or stores.

Search(ing) Note. Document given to Master by Customs officer, when ship has been searched for unentered goods.

Sea Reach. Length of a river between its discharge into the sea and its first bend inland.

Sea Reeve.* Former official who kept watch on seaward borders of estate of a lord of the manor. He took charge of wrecks, and prevented smuggling.

Sea-Risks. Special risks, incidental to a sea voyage, that may affect persons or goods.

Sea-Room. Sufficient expanse of sea for a vessel to manoeuvre without risk of grounding, or collision with other vessels.

Sea Rover. Pirate, or a pirate vessel. 2. One who travels by sea with no fixed destination. Sea Scarph. 'Sea Craft.'

Sea-Serpent. Animal of serpentine form, and immense size, credibly reported to have been sighted at sea. No final proof of its existence has yet been established.

Sea-Service. Service rendered, as one of the crew or complement, in a sea-going ship.

Seasickness. Disorder of the nervous system brought about by ship's movement in a seaway. Sea-Slug/Sea-Cat/Sea-Dart. Types of ship-to-aircraft guided missiles.

Sea Smoke. Vapour rising like steam or smoke from the sea caused by very cold air blowing over it. Frost-smoke, steam-fog, warm water fog, water smoke.

Sea-Snake. Venomous snake found swimming, near land, in waters of Indian and Pacific Oceans. Is eaten by natives of Tahiti.

Seasonal Area. Part of a seasonal zone, but having a load line period that differs somewhat from the load line period of the zone.

Seasonal Correction to Mean Sea Level. Correction to be applied to mean sea level, at a place, to find the sea level in a given season.

Seasonal Zone. Area of an ocean or sea, in which different load lines are in force in different seasons.

Sea Suction. Underwater opening in a ship, through which sea-water is pumped for wash deck, fire, ballast, sanitary, or other uses.

Seat. Any part, or member, on which another part, or member, rests.

Sea-Term. Word, phrase, or name particularly used by seamen.

Sea Thermometer. An ordinary thermometer, but with a cup round the bulb so that some water is retanied when taking temperature of surface water of the sea.

Sea-Urchin. Sea creature having a bony casing, rather like an orange, with numerous small spikes. Starts as a free-swimming creature, the bony covering developing later.

Sea-Wall. Embankment, or masonry, erected to protect land from damage by sea action. Seaward. Towards the sea.

Sea-Water. Water comprising the salt-water seas and oceans. Contains chlorides, sulphates, bromides, carbonates, etc. Specific gravity is about 1025—but varies between 1001 and 1031 (Suez).

Seaway. Expanse of water with definite wave motion.

Seaweed. Weed growing in sea-water, technically known as 'fucaceae'. Has simple spores, and is world-wide in extent. Some seaweed is edible; most is good for manuring land.

Nearly 500 known species.

Seaworthy. Said of a vessel when in all respects fit to carry a pro­posed cargo, or passengers. 2. Capable of withstanding risks incidental to the sea.

Seaworthiness. In a limited sense, is a vessel's fitness to withstand the action of the sea, wind, and weather. In a broader, and legal, sense, it requires that the vessel must be handled and navigated competently, fully manned, adequately stored, and in all respects fit to carry the cargo loaded.

Second. Sixtieth part of a minute of time. 2. Sixtieth part of a minute of arc.

Secondary. Applied to a circle, cold front, depression, meridian, or port, to distinguish it from a primary. Often used to denote a secondary depression.

Secondary Circle. Any great circle whose plane is perpendicular to a primary circle. It follows that a secondary circle will contain the axis and poles of the primary; and that the primary will contain the axes and poles of all its secondaries.

Secondary Cold Front. Front of polar air following first cold front.

Secondary Depression. Second area of low pressure formed inside a meteorological depression. Generally moves round primary depression, and may combine with it.

Secondary Meridian. Meridian whose position has been determined absolutely or astronomically, and not by reference to a prime meridian.

Secondary Port. Port, or position, whose tidal phenomena are deduced by reference to tides at an appropriate standard port.

Second Class Paper. Written undertakings to pay, whose financial value is open to doubt. Second Differences. Differences that affect a primary difference when the variation in value of a quantity is not uniform.

Second Futtock. Second portion of rib of a wooden vessel, counting from keel.

Second Greaser. Old nickname for a second mate.

Second Hand. Person next below Skipper of a fishing-vessel, usually certificated.

Second Rate. Former classification of a warship carrying 90 to 100 guns. In U.S.N., was a vessel of 2000 to 3000 tons.

Secret Block. Block in which sheave is completely covered except for a small lead to swallow of block.

Sector. Arc between two radii, or two lines of bearing.

Secular. Pertaining to, or connected with, the passing of time.

Secure. To make fast so that displacement cannot occur.

Securite (Safety). A radiotelephone message prefixed by the spoken word, 'say-cur-ee-tay', indicates that a message concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warning is about to be made.

Seel. The roll of a vessel at sea.

Segmental Bar. Rolled steel having section that is semi-circular, or nearly so.

Segmental Strip. Rolled steel section with lower side a chord of a circle, the upper side being an arc appreciably less than a semi­circle.

Seiche. Short period oscillation in level of enclosed, or partly enclosed, area of water when not due to the action of tide-raising forces.

Seine. Long fishing-net, 60 fathoms or more, in the form of a bag. About 8 to 16 ft. deep. Upper end is buoyed, lower end is weighted.

Seine Boat. Craft for fishing with seine net.

Seine Fishing. Catching fish with a seine net.

Seize. To bind together two ropes, or two parts of the same rope, with small stuff tightly turned around them.

Seizing. The turns of small stuff with which two parts of rope are seized. Principal forms are Flat, Round, and Racking seizings.

Seizing Wire. Seven wires, of galvanised iron or mild steel, with six of the wires laid up around a central wire. Used when seizing wire ropes.

Seizure. Taking of a ship by overpowering force, or by lawful authority.

Selene. Greek word for 'Moon'.

Selenography. The delineation of Moon's face.

Selenology. Branch of astronomy dealing with Moon.

Self-Mousing Hook. Hook having a spring mousing that allows easy hooking on, but prevents accidental unhooking.

Self-Trimmer. Vessel with large hatches and clear holds that allow coal, grain and similar cargoes to be teemed into any part of a hold.

Selvagee. Rope made by spunyarn being laid in parallel lengths, and bound together with marline-hitched spunyarn passed around all parts. Has great flexibility and grip.

Selvagee Strop. Strop made by laying spunyarn in coils and binding it with marline-hitched spunyarn.

Selvedge. Normal edge of woven material, such as canvas. 2. An alternative form of 'Selvagee'.

Semaphore. Method, or apparatus, for signalling alphabetical letters, numbers or code signs, by visible movements and changes of position. In nautical signalling, hand flags, or apparatus having movable arms, is used.

Semi-Diameter. Half diameter of disc of Sun or Moon. As this is the distance of the centre from the limb it is of great importance when measuring sextant altitudes.

Semi-Diesel Engine. Internal combustion engine in which injected fuel is vaporised by a hot bulb and compression. Used for working auxiliary machinery, and for propulsion of small vessels.

Semi-diurnal. Pertaining to, or recurring at, periods of half a day, approximately.

Semi-diurnal Tides. Tides occurring twice in a lunar day.

Semi-menstrual Inequality. Tidal inequality that goes through all its variations in half a lunar month.

Sennit. Plaited yarns, strands, or ropes.

Senhouse Slip. Strong slip, secured to framing of ship in chain locker, to hold inboard end of cable. Tumbler is shaped to pass through open link of cable and form a snug fitting for link. Gives maximum strength when cable is veered to a clinch. Allows instant release when required. Connection between ship and slip is by chain of such length that cable can be slipped from deck immediately above chain locker.

Sensible Horizon. Plane of celestial sphere that is tangent to Earth at position of an observer: is parallel to his rational horizon, and 4000 miles above it.

Sentinel. Electric apparatus in circuit of a navigation light, and causes a bell to ring if filament of lamp fuses. 2. Apparatus formerly used in surveying vessels. Specially shaped weight was towed over sea-bed by a wire from the stern. When depth varied, angle of wire increased or decreased, and caused the bell to ring.

Separation. The means, or material, by which one parcel of a ship's cargo is separated from another.

Separation Cloths. Large cloths used for separating different parcels of bulk cargoes such as grain.

Separation Error. Error in the collimation of a sextant, or optical instrument.

Septentrional. Pertaining to the North. From the Greek for 'Seven ploughing oxen" (Ursa Major).

Serein. Rain falling from a cloudless sky. Very abnormal.

Service. Serving put on a rope. 2. Duty performed. 3. Group of persons performing and sharing the same duties.

Services. Royal Navy, Army, Royal Air Force.

Serving. Rendering service. 2. Small stuff tightly wound around a splice or rope to protect it. 3. Act of putting on a serving.

Serving Board. Flat wooden tool used for serving a rope tightly and neatly.

Serving Mallet. Wooden mallet with a semi-circular groove along its cylindrically-shaped head. Used for serving when consider­able tension is desired.

Set. Direction in which a current flows.

Set and Drift. Direction and distance that a current travels in a given time.

Set Bolt. Bolt used for forcing another bolt out of its hole.

Set Flying. A sail set attached only by its halyard, sheet and tack but not by hanks to a stay.

Set Sail. To make sail. To loose sail and sheet home. 2. To sail away from a place.

Settee Rig. Boat rig having two masts, each carrying a four-sided fore and aft sail in which the luff is much shorter than the leech.

Set the Watch. To name a watch and detail it for duty on deck.

Setting. Said of a heavenly body when it moves down to western horizon. 2. Setting a course is putting ship's head in a desired direction. 3. Setting an observed object is ascertaining its compass bearing.

Setting Pole. A quant. Long pole by which a craft is propelled by putting pole on bed of the waterway, and bearing on it.

Settle. To ease a halyard, or other rope used for hoisting, by a small amount. 2. To cause the land, or a light, to go below horizon by sailing away from it.

Settling Tank. Stokehold tank into which fuel oil is pumped and allowed to settle before being used. Oil is drawn through a filter so that solid contents, usually sand, are left behind. Set Up. To tauten standing rigging with lanyards, tackles, or screws.

Sewed. Said of a vessel when water level has fallen from the level at which she would float. Also said of the water that has receded and caused a vessel to take the ground.

Sewn Boat. Boat made with a double skin of Honduras mahogany. Inside planking is at right angles to keel, and is 5/32 -inch thick. Outer skin goes horizontally, and is ¼ -inch to 3/8 -inch thick. These two skins are sewed together with copper wire.

Sewing. Said of water level when it is falling away from a minimum height necessary to float a particular vessel.

Sextant. Reflecting instrument used for measuring altitudes and other angles not exceeding 120°.

Shackle. Somewhat semi-circular bar of metal having an eye in each end to take a pin. Used for connecting purposes. 2. Length of chain cable measuring 12 ½ fathoms in Royal Navy,

15 fathoms in Merchant Navy.

Shackle Bolt. Bolt having a shackle at its end.

Shackle Crow. Tool for withdrawing a bolt. Somewhat similar to a crowbar, but having a shackle at toe.

Shackle Key. T-shaped key having a square section end. Used for unscrewing flush-headed shackle pins that have a square countersunk recess in head.

Shades (of Sextant). Coloured glasses by which excessive light is excluded.

Shame. Lug that takes the pivot pin of a gooseneck.

Shaft. Propeller shafting. 2. That part of an oar that lies between blade and loom.

Shaft Alley. Footway alongside propeller shafting, extending from engine-room to stern gland.

Shaft Coupling. Flange and bolt connection of two lengths of propeller shafting.

Shaft Pipe. Old name for 'Shaft Tube'. Especially applied to a tube in stern frame of wooden vessel, through which shaft passes.

Shaft Tube. Circular casing through which propeller shaft passes to propeller.

Shaft Tunnel. Enclosed space, between engine-room and stem gland, through which propeller shaft extends and in which are the shaft bearings.

Shake. Crack in timber due to faulty seasoning or drying. 2. To take hoops off a cask, barrel, etc., and reduce it to its original parts.

Shakedown Cruise. Voyage of a newly-commissioned warship in which frequent drills are carried out to familiarise the crew with their various stations and duties.

Shake Out a Reef. To loose a reef in a sail, adjust the sail and sheet home.

Shakes. Staves and headings of casks and barrels when dismantled and bundled together. Shakmgs. Hoops, staves, and headings of a cask or barrel when dismantled. 2. Cuttings of canvas, rope, etc., that accrue after fitting or refitting work. Termed 'arisings' in Royal Navy. Shallop. Small boat for one or two rowers. 2. Small fishing vessel with foresail, boom mainsail, and mizen trysail. 3. A sloop.

Shallow. Area where depth of water is small. A shoal.

Shallow Water Constituent. Quarter diurnal effect on a tidal undula­tion that is retarded in its translation by shoaling of ground or constriction of its path.

Shallow Water Tide. That tidal component which, due to shoaling or constriction, is separated from the main undulation, and arrives later.

Shamal. A north-west wind in Persian Gulf.

Shamrock Knot. Manipulation of bight of a rope so that three loops are formed round a central ring. Also called "Jury Mast Knot*.

Shanghaied. Forcibly put aboard a vessel other than one's own ship. Practically impossible nowadays, but was formerly common in certain American ports when crews deserted on

arrival and bounties were paid to those providing a crew.

Shank. That part of an anchor between the ring and the arms.

Shank Painter. Chain by which shank of anchor is held when stowed on a billboard. Shanty. Alternative name for 'Chanty'.

Shaping a Course. Laying off the course a vessel is to steer. Also used as meaning the steering of the course.

Shark. Large carnivorous fish found in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Principal types are the Basking, Dogfish, Hammer-headed, Tiger and White sharks.

'Shark Flies the Feather.5 Nautical saying embodying the strange fact that a shark will attack and devour any creature but a bird.

Sharkskin. Dried skin of the shark. Is rough, but free from scales. Used for smoothing wood, and for handgrips of swords.

Shark's Mouth. Deep and narrow indentation in canvas of an awning when in the way of a stay or other permanent rigging.

Sharpie. Long, narrow, flat-bottomed sailing boat.

Sharp Up. Said of yards when braced as far forward as possible.

Shaula. Star l Scorpii. S.H.A. 97°; Dec. S37°; Mag. 1-7.

Shear Hook.* Barbed hook that was fitted to yard arm of fireship to hook into rigging of any enemy vessel it collided with.

Shearing Stress/Strain. Force that is exerted so that it tends to make one part of a member slide over the other part; so exerting a scissors-like action on fastenings passing perpendicularly through both parts.

Sheathed. Said of a steel vessel when her underwater surface has been covered with wood to which copper sheathing has been fastened.

Sheathing. Protective covering. Particularly applied to copper placed on underwater surface of ships to prevent fouling and attacks of marine animal life. Also applied to wooden linings in holds, etc.

Sheathing Nail. Flat-headed cast nail of tin and copper alloy. Used for nailing copper sheathing on underwater surface of a wooden or sheathed vessel.

Sheave. Grooved wheel in which a rope runs and alters its direction. May be of metal or wood; lignum vitae being usual in the latter.

Sheave Hole. Aperture in which a sheave is fitted.

Sheepshank. Manipulation of a rope by which its effective length is reduced, and can be restored quickly. Rope is bighted so that three parts lie alongside and a bight is at each end; half hitch, in same rope, being passed over each bight.

Sheer. The upward sweep, from amidships to forward and aft of a vessel's freeboard deck. Also, the amount that the forward of after end of a deck is higher than midship part when keel is horizontal. Standard sheer, in inches, is 0.2 of vessel's length in feet+20 inches, for forward sheer; half this amount for after sheer.

Sheer Batten. Wooden batten used for same purpose as sheerpole.

Sheer Draught. 'Sheer Plan.'

Sheer Head Lashing. Used when rigging sheer legs. Heads are crossed and end of lashing is timber hitched to one leg, above the crutch. Taut turns are then passed, working downward. Finished off with three or four trapping turns around all parts, end being clove hitched to sheer head above the crutch.

Sheer Hulk. Old vessel fitted with sheers for stepping, or removing masts of ships.

Sheer Lashing. Variation of sheer head lashing. Rope is middled and passed round cross of legs. Turns are taken upwards with one part, downward with the other. When sufficient turns, ends are brought to centre and lashed.

Sheer Legs. Two splayed legs forming sheers.

Sheer Line. Line of main deck at its junction with ship's side.

Sheer Mast. One leg of a pair of sheers.

Sheer Mould. Thin wood template with one edge shaped to indicate sweep of deck sheer; used for transferring sheer line to side of plating.

Sheer off. To move away obliquely.

Sheer Plan. Drawing in which are delineated longitudinal, vertical, and horizontal sections, and transverse vertical sections, of a vessel or proposed vessel.

Sheerpole. Iron bar lashed to lower eyes of lower rigging to prevent shrouds, and deadeyes or screws, from turning.

Sheer Rail. Lower strake of bulwark planking in a wooden vessel.

Sheers. Splayed legs erected more or less vertically and meeting- or crossed-near top, where upper end of a purchase is attached for lifting purposes. Inclination of plane of these legs is control­led by tackles—or by a third, and longer, leg at right angles to the other pair. Used when masting ships and for other purposes requiring a high lift of a heavy weight.

Sheer Strake. Main strake in a vessel's side plating, being that to which main deck beams are fastened. In a boat, is the strake to which upper ends of ribs are fastened-sometimes called 'top strake'.

Sheet. Rope or purchase by which clew of a sail is adjusted and controlled when sailing.

Sheet Anchor. A third bower anchor. Originally, was heaviest anchor in ship, and used in heavy weather. Formerly called 'waist' anchor, on account of its being stowed abaft fore shrouds. Rarely carried nowadays, except in H.M. ships - where it is a spare, or additional, starboard bower anchor.

Sheet Bend. Simple and secure method of attaching a rope to an eye or loop. End of rope is passed through eye, over one side of it, behind the eye and then under its own standing part. Double sheet bend is made by putting a round turn below, and following, the first turn.

Sheet Cable. Cable attached to a sheet anchor.

Sheet Home. To haul on a sheet until it is taut and sail is fully extended.

Sheets. After space, in a boat, that is abaft thwarts. Sheets of sails are tended there when under sail. 2. Cockpit of a yacht.

Shelf. Strong timber bolted to inner sides of ribs of a wooden vessel, to form housing for deck beams. In a boat, it carries the thwarts. 2. Rather abrupt rising of sea-bed from deep water to shallower water.

Shelf Ice. Land ice, either afloat or on ground, that is composed of layers of snow that have become firm but have not turned to glacier ice.

Shelf Piece. Shelf that houses deck beams.

Shell. Outside plating, or strakes, of a vessel. 2. That part of a block in which a sheave revolves, and to which the hook or shackle is attached.

Shellback. An old and experienced seaman.

Shell Plating. Steel or iron plating that forms shell of a vessel.

Shelter Deck. Deck above main deck when it is not permanently closed against wind and weather. It is thus exempted from " certain tonnage dues.

Shelter Deck Type. Type of vessel having a continuous shelter deck above main deck.

Shelving. Said of sea-bed when it slopes from shoal water to deep water with comparatively small inclinations.

Sheratan. Star b Arietis. S.H.A. 332°; Dec. N21°; Mag. 2-7.

Shield Ship.* Warship having movable shield around each gun until moment of firing.

Shift. Of wind, is a change in its direction. 2. To shift a vessel is to move her from one berth to another.

Shifting. Moving a vessel from one berth to another. 2. Move­ment of stowed cargo by movement of ship in a seaway. 3. Changing of wind's direction. 4. Separation of blocks of a tackle when they have been hauled 'two blocks'.

Shifting Backstay. Backstay that was let go, when tacking, and shifted to the new weather side. Is a seaman's name for a man who has no standing job, but is put to any work that may require doing at the time.

Shifting Boards. Planks and boards erected in a hold to prevent a cargo from shifting. Particularly necessary with bulk grain and similar cargoes. Also used for preventing shift of solid ballast.

Shifting Centre.* Former name for 'Metacentre'.

Shifting Sands. Quicksands. Sands that are loose and fluid when wet, and cannot support weight.

Shift of Butts. Arrangement of a series of butted joints so that they do not lie in a line, or approximation of a line.

Shift of Wind. A definite change in wind direction.

Shingle. Coarse gravel that has been partially rounded by sea action.

Ship. A sea-going vessel. 2. Vessel having a certificate of registry. Technically, a sailing vessel having three or more masts with yards crossed on all of them. In Victorian times, any vessel with yards on three masts was termed a 'ship' even if other masts were fore and aft rigged. To ship, is to put on or into a vessel; to put any implement or fitting into its appropriate holder.

Shipbreach. Shipwreck.

Shipbreaker. One who breaks up old and unserviceable vessels.

Shipbroker. One whose business is the buying and selling of vessels. 2. One who acts as an intermediary between a shipowner and a shipper. 3. One who acts as a ship's agent.

Shipbuilder. One whose business is the building of ships.

Ship Building. The construction of ships.

Ship Canal. Canal connected with sea and of such size that sea­going vessels can safely navigate it.

Ship Chandler. Tradesman who deals in cordage, canvas, and other commodities required when fitting out or storing a ship.

Ship Construction. Ship building, more especially as applied to steel ships.

Ship Fever. Typhus. In 18th century was the name given to typhus when caused by insanitary conditions in overcrowded ships.

Ship Handling. Manoeuvring of a vessel in circumstances requiring precise and skilful movements of rudder, engines, or sails.

Shiplet.* Old name for a small ship.

Shipman.* Old name for a mariner of any rank or rating.

Shipmaster. A person in command of a ship. A person certified as competent to command a ship. A master mariner.

Shipmate. One who serves, or served, in the same ship as another.

Shipment. The putting of cargo into a vessel. Goods, or parcel of goods, put into a vessel for carriage.

Ship Money. General levy formerly made on all counties, boroughs, cities, towns, and ports of England for upkeep of Royal Navy. Usually made in time of war. When Charles I called for it in time of peace it aroused opposition that culminated in the Civil War.

Ship of the Line.* Ship having at least two decks and an armament sufficient for her to take a place in the battle line.

Shipowner. One who owns a ship, or who owns one or more 1/64 parts of a ship.

Shipper. One who puts goods into a ship for carriage. At one time the name was applied to a seaman.

Shipping Articles. Articles of Agreement entered into by the Master and crew of a ship before commencement of a voyage. Articles of British ships are opened in presence of the Super­intendent of a Merchant Shipping Office.

Shipping Federation. Association of shipowners that watches their interests, maintains agreed standards and represents owners in conferences and discussions with representatives of ships' personnel.

Shipping the Swab. Old Royal Navy colloquialism for promotion to rank of lieutenant. Relic of the time when lieutenants had one epaulette.

Ship-Rigged. Square rigged on all of three or more masts.

Shipshape. Arranged neatly and compactly.

Ship's Husband. Person formerly carried in a merchant ship to transact ship's business and purchase stores. In earlier times, was the boatswain, and was in charge of the crew and of the fabric of the ship.

Ship's Papers. Books and documents required to be held by a ship. Include Certificate of Registry, Articles of Agreement, official log-book, bill of health, free-board certificate, radio certificate, and documents relating to cargo.

Ship Time. Time kept by a ship in a given longitude. May be Zone Time, but is frequently Local Mean Time at last noon position. To avoid large time corrections the time may be corrected frequently when making large differences in longitude.

Ship Worm. The mollusc, teredo navalis which attaches itself to the underwater surface of ships.

Shipwreck. Destruction or loss of a ship at sea. To cause the loss of a ship. Name is sometimes given to wreckage.

Shipwright. Man skilled in the building and repairing of ships.

Shipyard. Yard or ground, near water, in which ships are built.

Shirt in Rigging.* Signal formerly made by a merchant vessel when asking for a boat to be sent to her by a warship.

Shiver. Old name for 'Sheave'. 2. To put luff of a sail into the wind so that the wind is spilled out of it.

Shoal. Ground with its upper surface a little below surface of the water. 2. Water shoals when its depth decreases.

Shoe. Board or block in which heel of a derrick or sheer leg is housed. 2. Step of a mast. Shoe an Anchor. To lash a board, or plate, to fluke of anchor to increase its grip in the ground. Sometimes put on Admiralty pattern anchor to prevent bill catching on edge of side plating when fishing the anchor.

Shoe Block. Block with two sheaves, one above the other, and the pin of one sheave athwart line of pin of the other sheave.

Shole. Flat timber, or plate, put under heel of a derrick or sheer leg to spread the thrust. 2. Piece of wood attached to lower edge of rudder to protect it when ship takes the ground. 3. Old form of 'Shoal'.

Shoot Ahead. To move ahead swiftly. To move ahead of another vessel quickly when underway.

Shoot Anchor.* Sheet Anchor.

Shooting in Stays. Carrying a good amount of way when going from one tack to the other under sail.

Shooting Stars. Meteors.

'Shoot the Sun.' To take Sun's altitude with sextant or quadrant.

Shore. Legally, area between high and low water marks on the coast. Commonly, the land immediately inshore of the sea.

Shore. Strong prop that supports or steadies a vessel's hull while building or in dock. Applied in line of a floor, frame, or rib. To shore is to place shores so that they steady or support.

Shore Floe. Field or floe ice that has become joined to shore, and does not rise and fall with tide.

Shore Horizon. Line made by sea surface along the shore, as viewed from ship.

Shoring. Supporting with shores. 2. All the shores used when shoring.

Short Bills. Bills of Exchange that become payable within 10 days of sighting.

Short Delivery. Delivery of cargo when short of bill of lading amount.

Shorten In. To decrease the amount of cable by which a vessel is riding.

Short Exchange. Rate of exchange for 'Short Bills'.

Shorten Sail. To reduce effective sail area of a ship under sail by furling or reefing.

Short Glass. Sand glass used in connection with ship log when speed exceeds five knots. Empties in 14 seconds; log indication being doubled to find speed.

Short-Handed. Not having full&

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