Ullage. The amount by which a container or package is short of its standard content. Also applied to a container or package short of its standard content. Ulloa's Circle. White 'rainbow' seen in fog, or at night. Ultimate Strength

U - English Maritime terminology

Ullage. The amount by which a container or package is short of its standard content. Also applied to a container or package short of its standard content.

Ulloa's Circle. White 'rainbow' seen in fog, or at night.

Ultimate Strength. The stress, usually expressed in tons per square inch, that exactly balances the resistance to fracture, or rupture, of a member or material under stress. Sometimes denned as the minimum load that will cause fracture or rupture.

Umbra. The conical shadow that an eclipsing heavenly body has on that side of it that is remote from the light source. Occasion­ally applied to the dark area of a sunspot.

Una Rig. Single sail spread to a yard or gaff and set on a mast stepped well forward. Used for small craft, and in Norfolk wherries.

Unbend. Untie. Cast loose.

Unbit. To cast off the upper securing turns of the cable from the bits, leaving the riding turn on.

Under Bare Poles. Said of a vessel running before the wind with no sail set; the motion of the vessel being due to wind pressure on her stern and upper works.

Under Canvas. Under sail.

Undercurrent. Moving water that is below the surface and having a direction and/or rate that differs from that of surface water.

Under Deck Tonnage. Tonnage based on space below tonnage deck, each 100 cu. ft. counting as one ton. Measured from top of floors—or ceiling, if any—to underside of tonnage deck.

Under Foot. Said of anchor when it is under ship's forefoot, and cable is nearly up and down.

Undergrid. To pass hawsers under a vessel and heave them taut across the upper deck. Done when seams show signs of opening through strains on mast, or through heavy weather. Also called 'trapping'.

Undermanned. Said of a vessel when she is short of personnel she should have in the prevailing circumstances.

Under Power. The condition of a vessel when mechanical power is being used to propel her through the water.

Under Protest. Applied to an action, payment, or signature when it is not freely rendered but is qualified by a statement made before the rendering. It thus leaves the matter open to dispute.

Underrun. To follow up the lead of a submerged rope or wire by putting rope over a boat, and hauling the boat along it.

Under Sail. Having sail set. Making way through the water by action of wind on the sails.

UndersaiL* To sail in the lee of a shore or headland.

Underset. The seaward setting current that moves under the surface water that is being driven shoreward by wind. Undertow.

Under the Lee. Under the shelter of an object to windward.

Undertow. Water flowing to seaward under surf.

Underwater Body. That volume of a vessel's hull that is immersed at a given draught.

Under Way. Not attached to the shore or the ground in any manner. Usually, but not necessarily, moving through or making way through the water.

Under Weigh. Under way.

Underwriter. A person who insures, wholly or in part, a marine risk by stating the amount for which he is liable in the policy, and then signing the policy. Underwriters at Lloyd' are required to deposit, with Lloyd's, securities to the value of, at least, £5000.

Underwriting. Contracting to make good, wholly or in part, a marine loss; signing to this effect at the foot of a policy of marine insurance.

Undulation. A rising above and a falling below a mean level in the manner of a smooth wave, or ripple.

Undulatory. Having an up and down movement, together with a sidewise movement, but without any translation of the particles of the fluid.

Unfurl. Cast loose a sail by letting go the gaskets.

Uniform System of Buoyage. Buoyage system in which the shape and/or colour of any buoy or beacon has a definite significance. Most maritime nations have a uniform system of their own. International system introduced in 1977.

Union. The device in the upper canton of an ensign or flag. Short name for the Union Jack, or the stars device of U.S.A. ensign.

Union Flag. Union of an ensign when flown by itself.

Union Hook. Swivelled cargo hook with ring carrying two swivels for connection to the two runners of a union purchase.

Union Jack. Device for a flag that forms the inner upper canton of a national ensign, or is used separately. Particularly applied to the British jack, which contains the crosses of Saints George, Andrew, and Patrick.

Union Purchase. Method of rigging cargo derricks so that they need not be moved while loading or discharging a hatch. One derrick plumbs the hatch, the other derrick plumbing the loading or discharging point overside. Runner of each derrick is shackled to the same cargo hook. Precision in plumbing results.

Universal Rating Rules. Measurements of yachts over 15 metres (49.2 ft.) L.W.L. Adopted in United Kingdom, 1931.

Universal Yacht Signals. Code of signals for yachts, produced by G. H. Ackers, 1847. Revised 1851 and 1859. Fell into disuse soon after the introduction of the "Commercial Code' of 1857.

Universal Time. Alternative name for 'Greenwich Mean Time'.

Unload. To discharge, or remove, cargo.

Unmoor. To cast off hawsers by which a vessel is attached to a buoy or wharf. To weigh one anchor when riding to two anchors. To remove a mooring swivel when moored to two cables.

Unrig. To remove rigging. To take off tackling or fittings.

Unseaworthy. Said of a vessel when she is not in all respects fitted to perform her contracted tasks. In a limited sense it is used to denote a vessel not fit to face the hazards of the sea; in a larger sense, particularly as regards insurance interests, it includes her incapability of carrying cargo properly, her failure to have officers that are properly qualified, her lack of navigational aids, and other similar negligences.

Unship. To remove from a ship. To remove an item from its place.

Unstable Equilibrium. A ship which, when forcibly inclined, heels still further, and may capsize, is in unstable equilibrium.

Unukalkay. Name of star 'Cor Serpentis', or a Serpentis.

Unwatched. Said of a navigational beacon light that is shown from a position at which there is no permanent attendant.

Up. To put the helm up is to move tiller to windward. Applied to sails, means to hoist the sail.

Up Anchor. Weigh anchor.

Up and Down. Said of cable when it extends vertically and taut from anchor to hawsepipe.

Upper Deck. In ships with more than one continuous deck, is the highest continuous deck.

Upper Transit. Passage of a heavenly body across observer's meridian.

Upper Works. All erections above the freeboard deck.

'Up Right and Down Straight—Like a Yankee Main Tack. ' Old phrase of a seaman when boasting of his candour. American ships, at one time, had comparatively short main tacks.

Upside Down Ensign. Old signal of distress.

Uptake. Enclosed casing that takes furnace gases from ends of boiler tubes to base of funnel.

Up Together. Order to the oars, on both sides of a boat, to give way together.

Uranography. The mapping of heavenly bodies on a chart or star globe.

Uranus. Planet between Saturn and Neptune. Not used in naviga­tion. Discovered by Herschel, 1871. Has five small satellites.

Ursa Major. The Great Bear.' Most brilliant of the northern constellations. Contains seven bright stars: Dubhe, Merak, Phecda, Megrez, Alioth, Mizar, and Alkaid; the first two point to Polaris. This constellation is also called the 'Plough', 'Dipper', 'Charles Wain', and 'Waggon and Horses'. It has been called the 'Corn Measurer' by the Chinese, and considered as a hippopotamus by the Egyptians.

Ursa Minor. 'The Lesser Bear.' Northern constellation containing Polaris, a Ursae Minor.

Uvroe, Uvrou. Euphroe.

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