Vailing Topsail. Letting go topsail halyards as a salute. Valuation Clause. Inserted in a policy of marine insurance to cover cases when ship becomes a constructive total loss

V - English Maritime terminology

Vailing Topsail. Letting go topsail halyards as a salute.

Valuation Clause. Inserted in a policy of marine insurance to cover cases when ship becomes a constructive total loss. Stipulates that insured value of ship shall be considered to be her value if repaired. If cost of repairing exceeded insured value the latter would be paid by insurers.

Valve. Mechanism that controls rate and amount of flow through an aperture.

Valve Metal. Red brass consisting of 80% copper, 8% zinc, 3 ½ % tin, and 2 ½ % lead.

Van. The leading ship, or ships, in a fleet or squadron.

Vane. Contrivance for indicating direction of wind. 2. Blade of a towed or submerged log. 3. Small flat plate used when sighting.

Vangs. Ropes, one on either side of a gaff, by which the gaff is hauled into a desired direction, and held there.

Variables. Airs and inconstant winds in sea area between N.E. and S.E. trades. Area is about 500 miles wide in September, decreasing to about 150 miles at end of year. Also 'Variables

of Cancer and Capricorn'.

Variable Stars. Stars whose apparent magnitudes vary periodically. Algol is an example, its magnitude changing from 2nd to 5th magnitude in less than three days. Some of them are binary stars in which one star passes in front of the other; others are giant stars that undergo some internal change.

Variation. Angle between magnetic and true meridians at any given position. 2. Change in orbital speed of Moon between syzygy and quadrature.

Vast. Usual contraction of 'Avast'.

Veer and Haul. To pay out cable and then immediately to haul on it. Slack made by veering allows hauling machinery to pick up speed.

Veering. Applied to cable or hawser, means paying out. Applied to wind, means altering direction clockwise.

Vega. Star a Lyrae. S.H.A. 81°; Dec. N39°; Mag. 0.1. One of the 'hydrogen' stars, or A stars. Its diameter is 2 times that of Sun, its candlepower being 50 times greater. Is 26 light-years

distant from Earth.

Vehicle. That liquid which carries the base and pigment of a paint.

Veiling Topsail. Vailing topsail.

Velocity. Speed. Usually expressed by units of distance travelled in a specified unit of time. The 'knot' is an unit of velocity, and does not require a time value.

Velocity of Light and Radio Waves. 186,285 statute miles per second. Is about 43 miles per second less in air. Approximately 11 million miles a minute. 161,800 sea miles per second. 328 yards per microsecond. 300 million metres per second.

Velocity of Sound. In air is about 1090 ft. per second at 32°F. (0°C.) and increases 1.14 ft. per second for each degree F. (2.05 for degree C.) above. In water, velocity varies with salinity, temperature, and pressure (depth), but lies between 785 and 845 fathoms per second for small and great depths respectively.

Velocity of Translation. Speed of movement of a storm centre.

Velocity of Wave. Speed at which crest moves.

Vendavales. Squally SW winds in vicinity of Straits of Gibraltar between September and March.

Ventilator. Any arrangement that removes foul air from a space and supplies fresh air to it.

Vent Pipe. Pipe placed to facilitate escape of air or vapour.

Venture. An enterprise in which there is a risk of loss.

Venus. Second planet from Sun, mean distance from him being 67,200,000 miles. Being an inferior planet it phases, and has a limited elongation of 48°. Distance from Earth varies between 26 and 160 million miles. May be observed in daytime occa­sionally.

Ventilation. The provision of an air current, or of a free passage of air.

Verano. Dry weather spell during winter in Central America.

Veranillo. A spell of fine weather, for about three weeks, during the summer rainy season in Central America.

Vernal Equinox. Spring equinox. The date, about March 21, when Sun crosses Equinoctial from south to north declination. Although this corresponds with autumn in the southern hemi­sphere, the name is fairly universal.

Vernier. Auxiliary scale, close alongside principal scale, for reading fractional values of main scale by noting coincidence in align­ment of graduations on vernier and main scale; the vernier graduation indicating the fractional value.

Vertex. The highest point in a curve. The zenith. That point at which a great circle track reaches its highest latitude. That point in any geometrical figure that is farthest from the base.

Vertical Circle. Any great circle, of the terrestrial sphere, whose plane is perpendicular to the horizon. It follows that all vertical circles will pass through the zenith.

Vertical Keel. Continuous fore and aft plating resting vertically on a flat plate keel.

Verticals. Short name for vertical circles of the celestial sphere.

Very's Lights. Pyrotechnic signals, fired from a pistol, showing red, white, or green stars for signalling purposes.

Very's Pistol. Pistol-type implement for igniting and holding a Very's light.

'Very Well Dice.' Until comparatively recently was an order to helmsman to keep her head in the direction she then had. Now replaced by order 'Steady', or 'Keep her so'.

Vesper. Name given to Venus when an evening star.

Vessel. Defined by Merchant Shipping Act as 'any ship or boat, or other description of vessel, used in navigation'.

Vice-Admiral. Flag officer next in rank above rear-admiral, and next below admiral.

Victualler.* Small vessel employed in keeping a fleet of warships supplied with provisions.

Victualling Bill. Customs document allowing shipment of bonded victualling stores to an outward-bound vessel.

Victualling Yard. Naval storehouse that supplies provisions and other paymasters' stores to ships of Royal Navy.

Vigia. Uncharted navigational danger that has been reported but has not been verified by survey.

Viol. Voyal.

Viol Block. Block having a cut-away part in shell so that a rope can be put over sheave. Similar to a snatch block but not having the hinged keeper.

Virazon. Spanish name for a sea breeze.

Virgo. Constellation situated between R.A. 11 h 45 m and 14 h 10m, and Dec. 11° S and 12° N, approx. Contains bright star Spica, a Virginis. Also, sixth sign of Zodiac, extending from 150° to 180° celestial longitude. Sun is in this sign from August 23 to September 22 (about). Vise. Endorsement on a document as evidence that it has been

sighted, examined, and found correct by a proper authority.

Visitation and Search. The right of warships of a belligerent power to stop shipping, on the high seas or territorial waters of an enemy, for the purpose of searching them for contraband. No claim for loss or expense incurred by the searched ship can be made against the belligerent power for the reasonable exercise of this right. Visibility. Term used to express the clearness of the atmosphere and the maximum range at which objects and lights can be clearly sighted. Thirty-one miles is 'excellent visibility'. Visibility. Of a light, given on charts, is the distance at which it can be seen on a dark night, with clear atmosphere, by an observer whose height if eye is 15 ft. above level of high water.

Visible Horizon. The boundary of Earth's visible surface at the position of an observer. The circle in which it appears to meet the sky is below the sensible and rational horizons by an amount depending on height of observer's eye above sea level,

Voith Schneider Propulsion. The engine shaft passes vertically through the bottom of the hull and rotates a wheel to which paddles or blades are attached at right angles to the wheel. The attitude of the paddles, controlled from the bridge, can be changed to direct their thrust and the vessel is highly manoeuvr­able.

Voltmeter. Instrument for measuring and indicating the voltage, or electro-motive force, of an electrical current.

Volume of Displacement. Displacement of a vessel when expressed in cubic measurement.

Voluntary Stranding. Intentional and deliberate stranding of a vessel for the greater safety of ship and contents.

Votive Ship. Model ship placed in a church or chapel as a thanks­giving for some danger escaped or as the fulfilment of a vow.

Voyage. In general, a journey by sea from one place to another, or to other places. In certain cases the voyage is considered as beginning when vessel arrives at her loading port, and ending when she has been moored in good safety at her discharging port for 24 hours.

Voyage Policy. Contract of marine insurance covering a voyage from one port to another, or others.

Voyal.* Endless rope that was led round a capstan and through leading blocks to allow cable to be hauled by lashing the cable to the rope. Commonly used for hauling cable to locker when locker was some distance from capstan.

V-Shaped Depression. Depression in which the isobars form a series of parallel Vs with line of low pressure passing through the angles. Low pressure area is in direction of open ends of Vs.

V-Shaped Trough. V-shaped depression.

V-Stern. A stern that has a more or less vertical, triangular transom plate.

Vulgar Establishment of Port. Interval between time of Moon's transit at a place, at Full or Change, and the occurrence of the following high water at the place.

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