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W - English Maritime terminology

Waft. To convoy or escort, a vessel (16th century), 2 Weft.

Wager Policy. Policy of marine insurance issued to an insurer who has not declared his interest in matter insured. If he has no interest, policy is void in law. Is usually honest, and is honoured by the insurers unless suspicious features are evident.

Waggoner. Name formerly given to Ursa Major, Auriga, or Bootes.

Waggoner.* Chart atlas of 17th century. Corrupted form of Wagenhaer, a Dutch cartographer.

Wails.* Wales.

Waist. Upper deck between forecastle and poop, or quarter deck. In sailing ships might be between fore ends of fore and main hatches, or between fore and main masts.

Waist Anchor. Spare bower anchor stowed at fore end of waist.

Waist Block. Sheave in midship bulwarks of a sailing vessel.

Waist Cloth. Canvas cloth covering hammock nettings in waist of a warship.

Waister.* Inexperienced or partially incapacitated seaman who was given duties in the waist of a warship, instead of working aloft.

Waist Pipe. Strengthened aperture in midship bulwarks, through which mooring hawsers are led.

Waiver Clause. Inserted in a policy of marine insurance to safe­guard insured and insurers when vessel appears to be a con­structive total loss. It allows either party to take steps to recover, save, or preserve the property in peril without prejudic­ing any right regarding abandonment.

Wake. The water immediately astern of a moving vessel. It is disturbed by vessel's motion through it and by the subsequent filling up of the cavity made.

Wake Current. That stream of water that flows to fill in the cavity left by a vessel moving through water.

Wale Knot. Wall knot.

Wales. The strongest strakes in hull of a wooden vessel.

'Walk Away. ' Order to haul on a rope by taking it in hand and walking.

'Walk Back. ' Order to keep a fall in hand but walk back so that the purchase will overhaul by virtue of its load.

Wallings. The two large mesh nets of a trammel.

Wall Knot. Made in end of a rope by unlaying strands, and passing each strand up and through bight of next strand, working in direction of lay of rope.

Wall-Sided. Said of a vessel having perpendicular sides.

Walt, Walty. Crank, cranky.

Walrus. Carnivorous sea mammal, about 10 to 12 ft. long, found in arctic regions. Name means 'whale horse'.

Wane. Decrease of Moon's illuminated area, as viewed from Earth.

Waning. Said of Moon when she is in her third and fourth quarters, and her illuminated area is decreasing. Also applied to inferior planets when phasing.

Wapp.* Small sheave, or thimble, in end of a pendant for use as a fair leader.

Ward Robe. Space in olden ships for stowage of valuables taken out of enemy vessels. Being empty when leaving home ports, it was used as a mess room for officers of lieutenant's rank –for whom no mess was then provided.

Ward Room. General mess room and meeting place, in H.M. ships, for officers of lieutenant's rank and above, but excluding flag officers and commanding officer.

Ward Rope.* Early 17th -century spelling of 'ward robe'.

Warkamoowee. Cingalese canoe with outriggers and sail. Manned by about five men.

Warm Front. A indeterminate line on which a mass of warm air meets and rises over a mass of colder air. Its approach is usually accompanied by rain.

'Warming the Bell. ' Striking 'eight bells' a little before time at the end of a watch.

Warm Sector. Mass of comparatively warm air between colder air masses.

Warp. The longitudinal threads in canvas and other textiles. 2. Hawser used when warping. Originally, was a rope smaller than a cable. 3. The line by which a boat rides to a sea anchor. 4. Mooring ropes.

Warpage. The act of warping. 2. A charge made for warping a vessel in harbour.

Warped Strop.* Selvagee strop.

Warping. Moving a vessel by running out a hawser to a fixed point, securing the end at that point, and then heaving on the rope.

Warping Chock. Chock on side of dock, used when warping vessels.

Warping Hook. Brace used for twisting a yarn when ropemaking.

Warranted Free Of. Firm statement and guarantee that an insurer is not liable for losses in connection with risks specified. 2. Firm statement and guarantee that a specified substance or article is not adulterated or contaminated with, or by, a specified factor.

Warrant Officer. Naval officer whose authority derived from a warrant issued either by or on behalf of the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland. Rank was junior to commissioned officer, but senior to all subordinate officers. This rank is now obsolete in Royal Navy.

Warrant Shipwright. Warrant officer of Royal Navy who was responsible for control of ship's carpenters and other duties connected with the efficiency of ship's structure. Now 'Com­missioned Shipwright'.

Warranty. Emphasised statement and undertaking that certain conditions exist or shall exist; or that certain things have been done or shall be done. The warranty may be specifically stated, or it may be implied by some act or statement.

Warranty of Seaworthiness. One of the 'Implied warranties' in marine insurance. The mere fact of applying for an insurance policy implies a warranty, by the applicant, that the ship is

seaworthy in all respects.

Warwick Screw. Rigging screw with sides of shroud cut away to allow the placing of locking blocks on square ends of screws when set up; thus preventing any slacking back. Wash. Broken water at bow of a vessel making way. 2. Disturbed water made by a propeller or paddle wheel. 3. Blade of an oar.

Wash Board. Wash strake.

Washing Down. Said of a vessel when she is shipping water on deck and it is running off through scuppers and freeing ports.

Washington Conferences. International marine conferences held in Washington, U.S.A., between October and December, 1889. Largely concerned with regulations for preventing collision at sea.

Wash Port. Aperture, in the bulwarks of a vessel, that allows water on deck to flow outboard.

Wash Strake. Upper strake of a boat's side planking. 2. Special lengths of wood fitted longitudinally above gunwale of a boat to give more freeboard when under sail.

Watch. Period of time, normally four hours, into which an nautical day is divided. The period between 16 hrs. and 20 hrs.—4 p.m. to 8 p.m.—is divided into two 'dog' (docked) watches, so that similar watches are not kept on consecutive days. 2. Group into

which crew is divided for duty; port or starboard watch if into two watches. To keep, or stand, a watch is to be on duty for a watch.

Watch and Watch. Keeping alternate watches throughout.

Watch Bell. Bell used for striking the half hours of each watch.

Watch Bill. Nominal list of men in a watch, together with their special duties and other relevant particulars.

Watch Buoy. Buoy moored in vicinity of a light-vessel to mark her position, and to give warning if she should drag her moorings.

Watching. Said of a mark buoy when it is fully floating.

Watch Tackle. Small tackle consisting of one single block, one double block, and a rather short fall. Used for general purposes on deck. Formerly used for getting a small but strong pull on running rigging. Also called 'Handy Billy'.

'Watch, There, Watch.5 Call made when using a deep-sea lead and line. Is called when the last bights of line are going out of one man's hand, and warns next man that his bights will run out.

Water. To take in water for drinking or boiler purposes. To pump fresh water into a ship. Water Anchor. Sea anchor. Drogue.

Water Bailiff. Name sometimes given to the Customs Officer of a port.

Water Ballast. Water carried by an unloaded vessel to increase her stability and give greater submersion to her propeller. Usually carried in double bottom, deep, and peak tanks.

Waterborne. Floating. 2. Carried by water.

Water Breaker. Small cask used for carrying drinking water in a boat.

Water Laid. Said of rope laid up left-handed. Sometimes applied to cable-laid rope.

Waterline. That line in which the surface of the water meets the ship's side at a specific draught. 2. Line painted round ship's side at approximate position of her load waterline.

Waterlogged. State of a vessel that has taken in so much water that she floats by the buoyancy of her fabric and her contents.

Waterplane. That horizontal section of a ship's hull which re­presents her shape in the water in that particular horizontal plane.

Water Sail.* Fine weather sail that was formerly set beneath a lower studdingsail in fine weather.

Water Splice. Cut splice in which the two parts between the splices are twined round each other before tucking the second splice.

Waterspout. A whirling up-current of warm, moist air, the outside of which is cooled and cloudlike. Height may be anything between 20 and some thousand of feet, width being from 20 to 500 ft. Caused by instability in atmosphere. Occurs in tem­perate zone, but mostly in tropical zones. They last for 10 to 30 minutes. When they break they may throw down heavy masses of water and, perhaps, ice. Gunfire does not affect them.

Watertight. Impervious to water.

Watertight Doors. Steel door so fitted and strengthened that it will prevent water passing when door is sealed.

Watertight Hatch. Hatch so fitted and strengthened that it will prevent water passing when hatch is closed and secured.

Watertight Sub-division. The dividing of a vessel into small com­partments fitted with watertight doors and hatches so that, in case of damage, the inflow of water will be arrested and localized.

Water-tube Boiler. One in which the water is confined to numerous small tubes that pass through the heat from the furnaces. Its great advantage lies in these tubes being able to support pressures far above those possible in Scotch and other cylindrical boilers. A further advantage is that considerable less weight of water is necessary. They require very careful tending. There are num­erous types, some working at extremely high pressures.

Waterways. Channels along ship's sides on deck, into which water runs and is carried to scuppers.

Watt. Electrical unit of power, equivalent to one ampere at one volt. 746 watts per minute is equivalent to one horsepower.

Wave. A perpendicular oscillation in the surface of a liquid. An undulation, of surface of a liquid, that appears to be progressive but, actually, is not.

Wave Guide. A copper tube of rectangular section which conveys signals between a radar transmitter-receiver and scanner.

Wave Length. Distance between successive crests, or troughs, of radiant energy. Usually denned as distance travelled by the energy in one cycle. Violet light ray has a wave length of one 70,000th of an inch; red light ray is twice this length.

Waveson. Goods floating on surface of sea after a wreck.

Wave Velocity. See 'Velocity of wave'.

Waxing. Said of Moon when she is in her first and second quarters and her illuminated area is increasing. Sometimes said of inferior planets.

Way. Vessel's inertia of motion through the water.

'Way Aloft. ' An order to go aloft on a mast. Contraction of 'Away aloft'.

Way Bill. Document signed in triplicate, accompanying mails carried in a ship. Gives details of mails and number of bags and sealed packets. At destination, one receipted way bill is returned to sending office, one is given to receiving office, third is retained in ship. 2. Document accompanying goods carried by a common carrier.

'Way Enough. ' Order given to a boat's crew when going alongside under oars. Denotes that boat has sufficient way, and that oars are to be placed inside the boat.

Ways. Baulks or skids along which vessels are launched after building.

'Way Wiser. '* Alternative name for the 'Nautical Dromometer’

Wearing. Going from one tack to the other, under sail, by putting ship's stern through the wind. 2. 'Wearing colours' is flying the ship's national ensign. Wearing a flag is flying it. Weather. Phenomena of the atmosphere that affect mankind. These include wind, visibility, temperature, air pressure, pre­cipitations, and electrical discharges. 2. To pass to windward of a point or object. 3. Windward, or nearer to the wind.

Weather Anchor. Anchor on the weather bow of a ship coming to anchor. 2. Anchor that lies to windward of any other anchor.

Weather Board. Windward side of a vessel.

Weather Bound. Said of a vessel unable to sail, or confined to a port of anchorage, by stress of weather.

Weather Bow. That bow, of a vessel, that is on her windward side.

Weather Cloth. Canvas screen temporarily placed for protection of helmsman, or officer of watch, against wind and spray. 2. Formerly, canvas covering for an exposed hammock netting.

Weather Deck. Deck that is open to weather and sea.

Weather Eye Open. To keep a good look out to windward.

Weather Gage, Gauge. The advantage of position due to being to windward of a vessel, or hazard.

Weather Glass. Popular name for a barometer in which the various barometric pressures are accompanied bywords indicating the probable weather.

Weather Gleam. Unusual gleam in horizon dead to windward. Usually foretells an abatement in wind force.

Weather Helm. Amount the tiller is moved to windward to keep a vessel under sail on her course, and to prevent her from coming to the wind.

Weathering. Passing to windward.

Weather Lurch. A rather quick roll to windward.

Weatherly. Said of a sailing vessel that points well up to the wind and makes less than average leeway. Said of a steam vessel that is comfortable in a seaway.

Weather Map. Map of chart that shows weather conditions at a certain position, or in a certain area. It may give the conditions prevailing, or the conditions to be expected. It may be based on present information, or on past records.

Weather Notation. System of letters and figures and symbols for recording or reporting weather conditions.

Weather Quarter. That quarter of a vessel, or the sea area in its arc, that is on the windward side of the vessel.

Weather Roll. A roll to windward by a vessel.

Weather Ropes. Old name for tarred ropes.

Weather Shore. A shore that is to windward of a vessel.

Weather Side. That side which is toward the direction from which wind is blowing.

Weather Tide. A tidal current that sets to windward.

Weather Working Days. Those working days in which the loading or unloading of cargo is not held up by weather conditions.

Web Frame. A specially deep transverse frame in the form of a built girder.

Wedge. V-shaped area of high barometric pressure between two depressions.

Weeding. Clearing rigging of stops, yarns, etc., that have been attached to it.

Weekly Articles. Common name for Home Trade Agreement, under which men are paid on a weekly basis.

Weekly Boats. Common name for vessels in the Home Trade, in which crew are paid on a weekly basis.

Weeping. Said of a small leak in which water flows very slowly.

Weeping Butts. Butted joints through which water seeps slowly. Sometimes applied to similar weepings at landings of plates.

Weevil. Small beetle which, with its larvae, attacks ship's biscuit and all grain.

Weft. The short thwartship thread in canvas, bunting, and other woven material. 2. Wheft.

Weigh. To lift. Now applied to anchor only: formerly applied to the lifting of a mast.

Weir's Azimuth Diagram. See 'Azimuth Diagram*.

Welded Knee. Beam knee made by turning down outboard end of beam and welding it to a small plate to fit ship's side in way of bend. Name is also given to a slabbed knee.

Welding. The uniting of two pieces of metal by fusion, or by pressure or hammering after softening by heat.

Welin Davits. Boat davits with a toothed quadrant at lower end, this quadrant engaging in a toothed rack fitted to deck. By means of a worm shaft, engaging in a collar on davit, the davit can be moved transversely inboard and outboard.

Welin-MacLachlan Davits. Boat's davits that move outboard transversely when the boat's gripes are released; the speed being controlled by a brake. Falls are reeled on drums, which also are controlled by brakes.

Well. Partitioned space, in bottom of a vessel, into which water runs and in which are pump suctions. 2. Compartment formerly found in some fishing boats. Water was kept in it, and fish were placed in this water when caught.

Well Deck. That part of an upper deck that is bounded, at forward and after ends, by bulkheads supporting higher decks.

Well Found. Said of a vessel that is adequately fitted, stored, and furnished.

Wending. Going from one tack to the other under sail.

Wentle.* To roll over.

West. Cardinal point of compass, halfway between North and South, and opposite to East. The intersection of horizon and prime vertical in that direction in which heavenly bodies set. West Country Whipping. Method of whipping end of rope by middling the twine, half-knotting it on either side alternately, and finishing off by reef knotting.

Westerlies. Prevailing winds between 40° and 60° latitudes North and South.

Westing. The distance, expressed in nautical miles, that a vessel makes good in a direction due west.

Weston Purchase. Differential purchase consisting of two sprocket wheels around which is a continuous chain having one of the wheels in the bight. Fixed wheel has 18 sprockets, moving wheel has 17. One turn of fixed wheel lifts lower wheel one link, thus giving a power of 35. This purchase will not walk back.

Wet. Said of a vessel that ships seas frequently.

Wet Air. Atmospheric air when cold surfaces become damp or wet although no rain is falling. Due to condensation caused by warm, saturated air replacing cold, dry air.

Wet Bulb Thermometer. Thermometer fitted with a wick from bulb to a cistern of water so that evaporation takes place at bulb, so extracting heat. This causes a lower temperature reading. Amount by which temperature is lowered depends on rate of evaporation at bulb, which, in turn, depends on moisture content of atmosphere.

Wet Dock. In contradistinction from dry dock, is a dock in which vessels are always afloat and water level is maintained by gates that are closed before fall of tide.

Wet Fog. Fog in which moisture forms rapidly and freely on exposed conducting surfaces.

Wet Spell. Name given to a period of 15 days, or more, in which the daily rainfall has been at least 0.04 inch.

Wetted Surface. The whole of the external surface of a vessel's outer plating that is in contact with the water in which she is floating.

Whack. Colloquial name for the statutory allowance of provisions and water.

Whale. Marine mammal having warm blood, lungs, and bearing its young. Is the largest animal. Length up to 80 ft. Various types are Right (or Greenland), Rorqual, Sperm, Cachalot, Cape or Southern, Humpback, Baleen.

Whaleback. Name given to a vessel having deck with excessive camber. Formerly applied to a poop having rounded side plating at its junction with the deck.

Whaleback Cloud. Common name for Strato-cumulus lenticularis cloud.

Whale Boat. Double-ended clinker-built boat formerly used in whaling. Length was usually 20-28 ft., occasionally longer.

Whale Catcher, Whale Chaser. Small ships, of steam trawler type, used for hunting v/hales. Fitted with harpoon gun forward. Work in conjunction with a whale factory.

Whaler. Vessel engaged in whale catching. 2. Person employed in whale catching. 3. Ship's boat of whale boat type.

Whale Factory. Large steam vessel, specially constructed and fitted in which captured whales are hauled aboard-along a special slipway at stern—and rendered into oil and meat.

Whaleman. Man engaged in the whaling industry.

Wharf. Erection in harbour, or on banks of inland waters, for the berthing of ships for loading and discharging of cargo, fitting, or refitting. 2.* Shore of the sea. Bank of a river. 3. To place on a wharf. 4. To protect by erecting a wharf.

Wharfage. Money paid for use of a wharf, or services of it. 2. The wharf accommodation, or facilities, at a port.

Wharfinger. One who owns or manages a wharf.

Wheatstone Gyroscope. Small gyroscope for demonstration pur­poses. Has a 4-inch wheel and attachments for suppressing freedom and for introducing precession.

Wheel. Usual name for the steering wheel by which a rudder is moved, or a steering engine actuated. In U.S.A. the name is given to a screw propeller.

Wheel Chains. Chains by which a wheel actuates a steering engine

or a rudder.

Wheel House. An erection around a steering wheel for the pro­tection of helmsman. Usually utilised for other purposes connected with the navigation of a vessel.

Wheel Ropes. Ropes by which a wheel actuates a rudder.

Wheft. Any flag that has had a stop passed around it halfway along the fly. It then has some special significance.

Whelps. Metal strips fixed vertically on barrel of capstan-or horizontally on warping end of winch-to increase grip of rope by making the turn a polygon instead of a circle.

Where Away? Enquiry addressed to a look-out man, demanding precise direction of an object he has sighted and reported.

Wherry. Small but roomy boat used for carrying goods or ferrying passengers in sheltered waters. Compare 'Norfolk Wherry.

Whether in Berth or Not. Term used in charter party, or other document, to stipulate that lay days shall commence when ship is ready to load, or unload, irrespective of whether ship is in the appropriate berth or not.

Whip. Rope rove through a standing block for hoisting. A double whip consists of a rope rove through two single clocks with end made fast to one of them. Gives advantage of two

or three, according to which block moves. 2. To pass a whipping around end of a rope.

Whipping. Twine or small stuff passed round end of a rope to prevent it unlaying.

2. Passing a whipping around a rope.

Whip Staff. Vertical handle on end of a hand-worked tiller.

Whirling Psychrometer. Wet and dry thermometers mounted in a frame hinged on a handle. Is whirled to increase evaporation at bulb of wet thermometer.

Whirlpool. Current that has a rotatory motion over a compara­tively small area. Is troublesome in that it may turn ship's head against maximum rudder at maximum speed. Its suctional effect is largely mythical.

Whirlwind. Small but very intense revolving storm, the wind cir­culating very rapidly around a low-pressure centre-line.

Whisker Booms. Spritsail gaffs; whiskers.

Whisker Gaff. Whisker boom.

Whiskers. Spars projecting transversely from just forward of cat­heads and approximately horizontally. Purpose is to give adequate spread of guys of jib boom. Sometimes called 'sprit-sail gaffs'.

Whistle. Sound-producing instrument that is required to be fitted on any power-propelled vessel unless a siren is fitted.

Whistle Buoy. Navigational aid buoy that emits a whistling sound through mechanism actuated by wave movement.

Whistling for Wind. Based on a very old tradition that whistling at sea will cause a wind to rise.

Whistling Psalms to the Taffrail. Nautical phrase that means giving good advice that will not be taken.

White Caps. Foam on crests of waves.

White Combination Engine. Propelling engine combining a high­ speed triple-expansion engine and a Parson's reaction turbine.

White Ensign. Ensign having a white ground with a red St. George's cross, and Union in inner upper canton. Is the proper ensign of Her Majesty's ships, and shore establishments under naval command, and yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron.

White Forster Boiler. Water-tube boiler of Jarrow type, but with a larger steam drum—that allows for removal and replacement of tubes.

White Horses. Fast-running waves with white foam crests.

White Rope. Rope and cordage made of untarred hemp.

White Squadron. Former division of a fleet of warships. From 1625 to 1653 was the rear division, under a rear-admiral. After this it was the centre division under a vice-admiral. Dis­continued 1864.

White Squall. Sudden squall that causes white foam, or froth, to form on surface of sea. Sometimes applied to a squall in which there is no reduction of light.

Whole Gale.* Wind having a velocity of 48 to 55 knots.

Wholesome. Said of craft that behave well in bad weather.

Widow's Men.* Fictitious names, up to 2 per cent of a crew, that were entered in ship's books of H.M. ships. Their pay and victualling allowances were credited to the 'Widows' Fund'. Commenced 1763, abolished about 1831.

Wildcat. Cable holder, or sprocket wheel, of windlass.

Wildfire.* Inflammable composition anciently used in naval war­fare. Composed of pitch, sulphur, naphtha, etc.

Willesden Canvas. Treated canvas, green in colour, often used for tarpaulins.

Williamson Turn. Used to turn a vessel 180° and bring on to her original track. The wheel is put hard over until the heading has altered about 60°. The wheel is then put hard over in the opposite direction until the heading is approaching the reciprocal of the original course and the vessel is steaming into her wake.

Willis Altitude Azimuth Instrument. Small instrument for obtaining, mechanically, altitude and azimuth of a heavenly body from its declination and hour angle, and latitude of observer.

Willis Navigating Machine. Invented by E. J. Willis (U.S.A.) for the mechanical solution of navigational problems involving latitude, altitude, declination, hour angle. Weight 47 Ib.

Williwaws. Sudden and violent squalls met with in Straits of Magellan.

Willy Willy. Local name for a severe cyclone off coast of north-western Australia, and in Arafura Sea.

Winch. Machine consisting of a horizontal barrel revolving on an axis and operated by hand or power. Geared to give mechanical advantage. Used for lifting and lowering cargo, and for other purposes that require more power than can be supplied by crew.

Wind. Air that is perceptibly in motion. See Beaufort Scale.

Wind Bound. Confined to a port or anchorage by adversity of wind.

Wind Chute. Metal scoop that fits in a port or scuttle and projects outboard, thus deflecting air into a compartment when ship or air is moving.

Wind Dog. An incomplete rainbow, or part of a rainbow. Some times seen in English Channel, where it is supposed to indicate approach of a storm.

Wind Force. Velocity of wind as indicated by Beaufort Scale, in which 1 is a light air, and 12 is a hurricane; intermediate velocities having appropriate intermediate numbers.

Wind Gall. Luminous edge of a cloud to windward. Supposed to indicate approach of a storm.

Winding. Turning a vessel end for end between buoys, or along­side a wharf or pier.

Winding Tackle. Large purchase, comprising three-fold block aloft and double block in lower end. Secured at lower masthead and used for lifting heavy weights.

Windjammer. Colloquial name for a sailing vessel.

Windlass. Machine working on a horizontal axis and used for working cable. Usually has two sprocket wheel's for holding cables, and warping drums at extremities of shaft. Actuated by steam or electricity. Gearing is provided so that one or both sprocket wheels can be meshed with engine shaft. Brakes are provided for holding cable holders when disconnected from shaft. Old types were hand-worked.

Windlass Bitts. Vertical timbers in which hand-worked windlasses were formerly mounted.

Wind Lipper. Slight disturbance of sea surface by a wind that has just arisen.

Windmill. Formerly carried by Scandinavian sailing vessels for actuating bilge pumps.

Wind Rode. Said of a vessel at anchor when the directions of her head and cable are to windward.

Wind Rose. Intersecting lines, on a weather chart, showing direc­tions, frequencies, and strengths of wind in that locality over a certain time.

Wind Sail. Large tube of canvas with a shaped mouth that can be trimmed to the wind by lines. Used for conveying air to spaces below upper deck.

Wind Scoop. Wind chute.

Wind Taut. Said of an anchored vessel when straining at her cable and heeled by force of wind.

Wind Wale. Sponson rim of paddle steamer; connecting paddle beam to sides of vessel.

Wind Vane. Any streamer or device used for indicating direction of wind.

Windward. Towards the wind. Nearer to the wind. The direction from which the wind blows.

Windward Sailing. Sailing against wind on alternate tacks, but sailing a longer leg on that tack which is in the approximate direction of the position it is desired to reach.

Wing. That part of a hold, or 'tween deck, that lies along the side. 2. To stow cargo in wing of hold. 3.* Occasionally applied to the sponson of a paddle steamer.

Wing and Wing. Said of a fore and aft rigged vessel when she is running with sails out on both sides.

Winger.* Small water cask stowed in wings of holds in old sailing ships.

Wing Boards. Sloping boards permanently fitted in self-trimming colliers. They are inclined at angle of repose of coal, and extend to ship's side from underside of deck.

Winging Out. Putting cargo in wing of a hold, or towards ship's side.

Wing Transom. Thwartship timber in lower part of stern of old wooden ships. In warships, it formed sill of gun-room windows.

Winter Load Line. Statutory load line mark indicating depth to which vessel may be loaded in seasonal winter.

Winter Solstice. That point of time at which Sun obtains his maximum declination and minimum noon altitude, and appears to stand still in declination for an appreciable time. Occurs about December 21 in northern latitudes, June 21 in southern latitudes.

By convention, the former is generally accepted.

Wireless Bearing. Radio bearing.

Wireless Telegraphy Acts. 1919-27-32. Lay down rules for the equipment, fitting, and use of radio equipment in sea-going ships.

Wireless Time Signals. Radio time signals.

Wire Rope. Rope made of wires, those used in ships being of iron or steel. Three main types used are flexible steel wires, steel rigging wires, and iron rigging wires.

Wire Rope Gauge. Small instrument, with adjustable jaws, used for measuring diameter of a rope-but graduated to indicate the corresponding circumference.

Wire Rope Grip. Bull-dog grip.

Wiring.* The rising in a boat. The fore and aft internal strip on which the thwarts rest.

Wiring Clamp. Doubling piece of wood clamped to rising of a boat to take fastening of a thwart.

Wishbone Gaff or Boom. A double gaff or boom which allows the sail to take an aeroform shape.

Withe. Ring, or boom iron, through which a secondary spar is held to a mast or principal boom.

Without Prejudice. Words used when a statement, comment, or action is not to be taken as implying agreement or disagreement, or affecting in any way a matter in dispute, or under con­sideration.

Wooden Walls. Name given to warships, in the days of wooden ships, in recognition of the fact that they were the outer defence of the Realm.

Woolaston Current Meter. Stationary instrument lowered into the water for measuring and indicating rate and direction of current. Has a timekeeping unit so that variations in rate and direction are shown graphically against a time scale. Measures rates up to 6 knots.

Woold/ing. Bind/ing rope tautly around a spar, particularly after fishing it.

Woolder. Strong wooden rod used for heaving rope taut when woolding.

Work. Said of parts of a ship that move through action of wind or sea. 2. To work a sight is to reduce its data to a desired value. 3. Work to windward is to ply to windward.

Work a Traverse. To reduce the various courses and distances sailed to the resultant changes in latitude and longitude.

Working Days. Those days on which it is customary to work in the given port, the length of the day being the customary number of hours. A 'working day of 24 hours' would be three working days in a port at which it was customary to work eight hours a day.

Working Foresail. Fore and aft foresail whose sheet rides on a horse.

Working Gear. Gear or clothing in general use. Sails used when working to windward.

Working Strain. Maximum stress a rope, member, or fitting will bear.

Working Up. Increasing in speed, force, or efficiency.

Worm. To put yarn, or small stuff, in cantlines of a rope that is to be parcelled and served. 2. Spiral thread, on a shaft, that engages in appropriately cut teeth on a wheel or drum. Has a large ratio of purchase and rarely 'walks back'.

Wrack. Thin, ragged, fast-moving clouds. 2. Seaweed thrown ashore by sea. 3. To destroy by wave action. 4. Old form of 'wreck'.

Wreck. Vessel so damaged as to be unseaworthy and incapable of being navigated. Legally, includes 'jetsam, flotsam, lagan, and derelict found in or on shores of sea or tidal water'.

Wreckage. Fragments of a wrecked vessel. 2. The remains of a wrecked vessel. 3. The act of wrecking. 4. Goods washed ashore from a wrecked vessel.

Wreck Buoy. Buoy marking the position of a wrecked ship.

Wreck Commission. Court that investigates the causes and cir­cumstances of a wreck. First sat in 1876.

Wrecker. One who deliberately causes a vessel to be wrecked. 2. One who plunders a wrecked vessel. 3. One whose duty is to remove cargo from a wrecked vessel on behalf of owners.

Wriggle. Rigol.

Wring. To strain and deform by excessive stress.

Wring Bolt. Bolt used, in wooden ship building, to bend a strake into position and hold it so until fastened.

Wring Staff. Wooden handspike used for setting up wring bolts.

Wrinkle. Small protruding bight in skin of a furled sail. 2. Short and pithy piece of helpful advice.

Wrought Mat. Paunch mat.

Wrung. Said of a mast or spar that has been strained or twisted.

Wry-necked Ned. Nickname given to Admiral Boscawen after a wound in neck caused him to carry his head on one side.

W/T. Radio telegraph.

W.T. Water-tight.

Wythe. Alternative form of 'withe'.

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