HD Coronavirus


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Basic information about the novel Coronarvirus, currently in China.Coronaviruses (CoV)A large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe respiratory diseases.A new novel virus identified from humans 29th December 2019, 2019-nCoVHuman respiratory viral infectionsCold often caused by rhinovirusInfluenza (flu) caused by influenza virusCoronaviruses virionCoV is a single stranded RNAProtein envelope (protein shell or capsid)Crown shaped virionsLess than 100 nmCoronaviruses are zoonoticMERS Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, 2012 SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, 2003 Novel previously unidentified in humans, 2019 – nCoVClinical featuresFever 98% Cough 76%Myalgia or fatigue 44%Sputum production 28%Headache 8%Haemoptysis 5%Diarrhoea 3%Dyspnoea 55%Severe acute respiratory infection – pneumoniaAcute respiratory distress syndromeRadiologyMedian duration from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 daysMedian time from onset of symptoms to first hospital admission 7·0 daysTime from onset of symptoms to mechanical ventilation was 10·5 days Leucopenia less than 4 × 109/L 25%Lymphopenia less than 1·0 × 109/L 63% TransmissionDirect from animals, vectorsHuman to humanDroplet, nasal or mouth mucosa, eyesCoughs and sneezes spread diseases — over 2 metresCatch it — bin it — kill itSurfaces — hands — mucous membranesVirus contained in an envelope, so virus can stay dormant for 5 daysFomitesClosed environments, less likely outsideSometimes people with mild or no symptoms can be carriersContagious for a few (2-5-14) days of incubation period, feeling well but still contagious.Protection1. Stay home, avoid planes, buses, trains, busy areas2. No visitors avoid close contact with symptomatic people or potential carriers3. Wear a quality medical mask4. Wrap around glasses5. Gloves and meticulous hand hygiene, don’t touch eyes, nose mouth6. Don’t trust hand sanitizers7. Avoid hospitalsSame infectiousness as SARS, lower mortality (SARS) 10% v 3%2 to 3 people get new infection for every infected caseTreatmentSupportiveKeep warmHydrationEat if hungryNo specific coronavirus antiviral drugsOxygen for hypoxaemia3% mortalityNo vaccine as yet
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